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How to apply for Canadian Permanent Residency on your own 

This simple procedure might just be what you need for a seamless and less stressful immigration to Canada.



Canada, How to apply for Canadian Permanent Residency on your own 

Canada is seen as a land of greener pastures for Nigeriansand many other citizens of developing nations, seeking to migrate to other countries, in search of work, education, and a better life. Meanwhile, we live in a world of endless opportunities, as so many people can move, travel, and build a life in a totally different placefrom where they were born. 

Countries like Canada, have impressive policies, that allow other skilled nationals to earn permits to live and work there. The major means for Nigerian nationals to migrate to Canada is through Express Entry. It is an online system that the Canadian government uses to manage permanent residence applications.  

READ: Canada invites 7,200 Candidates to apply for Permanent Residency in its November draws 

Below is a snapshot of the process.


  • The first step is to enter the Express Entry pool. 
  • To do this, you will need to take an English test, and get your educational credentials assessed. 
  • Once you’re in the pool, you will be given a score based on factors such as your age, education, work experience, and language proficiency. 
  • You may then be invited by the Canadian governmentto apply for permanent residence, as part of one of the regularly held Express Entry draws. 

Explore the Nairametrics Research Website for Economic and Financial Data

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To further help our readers understand the process more, these are the details on how to go about it. Of course, this article cannot cover every single aspect of immigrating to Canada. However, if you want to know more about the Express Entry process to move to Canada, this is for you. 

Step 1a – Take the quiz to find out if you are eligible 

Cost: FREE 

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The quiz is simple and you can do it by yourself here. If you have not done a language test before, give yourself a hypothetical test score, and fill out your other information. I recommend that you give yourself a test score lower than what you think you may get, so you can gauge the amount of room you have to play around with. 

Step 1b – Find out your work NOC (National Occupational Classification) 

This is important because you can only claim work history in one NOC, which means that if you’ve jumped around from one job description to the other, you will need to choose the one you have acquired the longest experience at. It is okay if you’ve changed jobs, but as long as your jobs have all been in one NOC, they count. Find your NOC here. 

READ: Nigeria seeks bank documents of former President, others over $9.6 billion P&ID case

Step 2 – Register for the language test – IELTS General, etc. 

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Cost: N75,000 for Nigerians 

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Time Required: 2 to 3 months 

If you are eligible based on the quiz above, the next step is to register for the language test. Everyone applying for Canadian PR has to take a language test, to show proficiency in either French or English. You get bonus points if you can prove both! I recommend that you give yourself a two to three-month window to prepare for the language test.  

For most people, this is the only thing you have in your control. Your age isn’t going to change, your work history won’t change much, and you may need a few years to get an additional degree. So, even though you have been speaking English all your life, IELTS General and others are standardized tests, and you have to know how they want you to answer the questions asked 

The most common test for English Language is IELTS General (you cannot use IELTS Academic for immigration purposes)but it isn’t the only one. See the approved language tests for Canadian PR here. This is the official site to register for IELTS with British Council. You can also choose between paper-based and computer-based tests, which are both delivered in any of their official test centers, as desired by you. 

Here are practice tests to help you prepare for the IELTS General test. Do not take these practice guides for granted. They go a long way in ensuring you pass the test. 

READ: Applications for Canadian Permanent Residency hit 35,100 in 5-months

Step 3 – Prepare your documents for Educational Credential Assessment (ECA) 

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Cost: from USD230/CAD305/N87,400 

Time Required: 2 months  


Use the two or three months of IELTS preparation, to also prepare your degree evaluation, so you can save time. Everyone who goes to school outside of Canada must go through this process. The Canadian IRCC has a list of certified organizations, that can verify your degree and equate it with a Canadian one. The list of organizations can be found here. The most common organization is World Education Services (WES). Basically, they need to say that your degree is equivalent to so-so-and-so degree in Canada. 

You can decide to evaluate your most recent degree or all your degrees. The IRCC only requires your most recent degree (your highest degree). However, you need to figure out what works best for you. It is important to note that, if you evaluate multiple degrees under one WES profile, it costs the same as evaluating only one degree. This is the process: 

  • Register an account with WES here. 
  • Fill out a profile and provide information about your degree(s). Please, make sure every detail is correct and you cross-check a couple of times. 
  • Pay the evaluation fee of CAD220, and the courier fee of CAD85 (for them to ship your evaluation back to you). I recommend you pay the CAD85 courier fee, instead of the CAD7 regular postage fee, so that when your evaluation is returned, it is returned speedilysecurelyand doesn’t get stuck in the local post system. As soon as you pay, you will receive a unique WES Number. 

Note: When you put in all your degree details, the WES system will automatically pull out the documents you are required to send to them for verification. For most countries, only transcripts are required. Unfortunately, those with Nigerian degrees are required to provide a whole lot more, due to a number of people sending in falsified documents. List of requirements for Nigerian degrees: 

  • Degree Certificate 
  • Academic Transcripts 
  • Final Secondary Examination Results 
  • WAEC/NECO Scratch Card 

The requirements were changed in 2018, when they could no longer take the increasing number of fraudulent documents coming in from Nigeria. 

  • Apply for your transcripts and documents. If your school has a cut-throat process, all the more reason to ensure that you have enough time to go through this process. Also, remember to factor in the cost of requesting transcripts. 
  • Send your required documents to WES. Make sure you follow all the instructions. All transcripts and documents must be sealed and signed, or stamped across the seal fold of the envelope, and every envelope must have your WES number on it. Courier shipping via DHL, from Lagos to the WES Toronto office costs about $65 or CAD86 or N24,700. 
  • Wait for WES to receive your documents and complete your verification. It takes 20 working days from when they receive all your required document, for them to send you an evaluation report. This is the report that you need for your Canadian PR application. 

Step 4 – Take your IELTS Test & Get Results 

Time Required: 13 Days 

Your speaking test will be on a different date from your writing, reading and listening tests. You will receive an email a few weeks to your test date, with details of your speaking test (usually the speaking test is the same week as your main test date). All the other three tests will be on the day you chose when you registered. You will be able to pick up your results 13 days after your main test date. 

Step 5 – Create an Online Express Entry Profile 

Now that you have your WES evaluation report and your language test results, you are ready to create an Express Entry profile hereYou can use this tool to find out what your exact CRS Score will be,  by just filling the questionnaires with your results. That way, you have an idea whether you stand a high chance in the pool or not. 

This profile will close within 60 days of opening, if you do not submit, so try to complete it as soon as you can. You will be asked personal information, work history, test scores, degree details, etc. All these details will add up to give you a Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) Score. Make sure you are truthful and consistent. As soon as you complete and cross-check your Express Entry profile, go ahead and submit it. 

Step 6 – Wait for an Invitation to Apply (ITA) 

Time Required: minimum of 1 day 

Every two weeks, a draw is made from the pool of submitted Express Entry profiles. This draw is done to offer ITAs to candidates. An ITA basically says, you can now begin the official application process for PR. The exact cut-off score is determined by the number of selections the committee plans to choose from that draw. For example, if they need 3,500 selections from that draw, they pick the highest 3,500 candidates in the pool on that dateand the score of the 3500th person becomes the cut-off score. If there is a tie for the 3500th person, they use factors like date and time of submission to break the tie. Just as a guideline, the cut-off scores for August and September 2020 were 476 (Aug 5) and 475 (Sep 2) respectively. 

If you are one of the top candidates, you can receive an ITA in the next draw, from when you submit your profile. Technically, if you submit your profile today and the draw is tomorrow, you can get an ITA in one day. However, if your score falls short, you can stay in the pull, and keep doing other things to boost your score. See a detailed explanation on ways to improve your score, while you’re in the Express Entry pool. After 12 months, if you don’t get selected from the pool, it will expire and you will have to create a new one. 

Also, while waiting for an ITA, you can register in the Job Bank, and start looking for jobs. 

Step 7 – Apply for Canadian Permanent Residency 

Cost: USD785/CAD1,040/N298,300 per adult applicant  

Time Required: 6 months. 

Now that you have been invited to apply, you will need to prepare your application and submit all your documents. It is important to note that your fee of CAD1,040, is split into CAD550 application fee and CAD490, right to permanent residence fee. If you do not successfully get PR, the CAD490 will be refunded to you. You only have 60 days to complete this application! 

Documents Required: 

  • Application Fee (see above) 
  • Test Results 
  • Academic Verification Report 
  • Digital Photographs 
  • Medical Examination: Every country has an approved list of panel physicians, who can provide a medical examination. In Nigeria, there are three in Lagos and one in Abuja, the costs may vary slightly.  
  • Police Certificates: If you have lived in a country for more than 6 months in a row, within the last 10 years, you have to include police reports from each of those countries (including your home country, where you currently live). The cost of obtaining a police certificate will differ based on where you live, and where you are requesting one from. See how to get a police certificate in each country. 
  • Passport Biodata Page 
  • Reference or Experience Work Letter: Your former and current employers listed on your Express Entry Profile; must all provide letters to prove your work history with them. 
  • Proof of Funds: You must provide a letter from your bank vouching for the availability of funds required for relocation. These are the amount required for relocation: 

1 Family Member (you alone): CAD12,669 or N3.69 million. 

2 Family Members: CAD15,772 or N4.31 million. 

3 Family Members: CAD19,390 or N5.65 million. 

4 Family Members: CAD23,542 or N6.86 million. 

5 Family Members: CAD26,701 or N7.78 million. 

6 Family Members: CAD30,114 or N8.77 million. 

7 Family Members: CAD33,528 or N9.77 million. 

For each additional family member: CAD3,414 or N994,000. 

  • Other Documents: Depending on whether you have children, you are divorced, married, and so on, there is a host of other documents required, including name change certificate, birth certificate of child(ren), marriage certificate etc. Find the full details here. 

Once you have all your complete documents, you will be able to fill out your application on the portal and upload scanned copies of all your documents. Make sure you follow the guidelines for clarity, size and resolution of all documents. You will also be able to make your payment. 

Step 8 – Bio-metrics 

At some point, you may be called to submit your bio metrics at a local embassy or VFS. 

Step 9 – Wait and live your life! 

According to the IRCC, 80% of all applicants receive a response within 6 months. Don’t spend 6 months worrying. Just go about your business. You can log into your profile from time to time to check what stage your application has reached. For some people, it comes in 2 months and for others, it takes 6 months! It doesn’t matter, just keep living your life. 

Step 9 – Receive a PPR – Passport Request email – Ready for Visa 

Once you get this letter, you can send in your passports. Your PR approval will also come with a deadline, when you have to enter into Canada or else your PR will be invalidated. This is usually between 6 months to 1 year from the approval. You are ready to go! 


NOTE: This article is a revamped content written by Funmi Oyatogun in 2019. 

Funmi Oyatogun is a travel expert/consultant with TVP Adventure, and also the Owner/Publisher of She is on Instagram @funmioyatogun. 

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Hospitality & Travel

Nigeria set to lose on latest Bilateral Air Service Agreements

Experts have explained why Nigeria is at the losing end of yet another Bilateral Air Space Agreement.



Nigeria set to lose on latest Bilateral Air Service Agreements, United States announces changes to work permit visas that could affect Nigerians

It is no longer news that Nigeria signed Bilateral Air Service Agreements (BASA) with the United States, India, Morocco and Rwanda. However, who benefits more from the agreements has been a topical discussion amongst Nigerian stakeholders. Some of them, who spoke with Nairametrics in separate interviews, argued that the development would favour the partner countries more than Nigeria.

They argued that Nigeria has signed this deal with over 80 countries across the world, but has turned out to be disadvantageous to Nigeria. Most of the agreements are only beneficial to the countries and their foreign carriers, without any reciprocal benefits to Nigeria. This is allegedly due to the failure of the Nigerian representatives to put Nigeria’s interest first at the BASA negotiating table.

READ: CBN to sanction exporters who default on export proceed number

In most cases, Nigeria does not really benefit from the deal, especially with no National carrier or a domestic airline that has the required equipment to compete with their foreign counterparts.

Managing Director, Starburst Aviation Limited, Capt. David Olubadewo, who was once Nigeria’s youngest pilot, admitted that he has not seen the agreements. However, he told Nairametrics that the nation does not have the capacity/equipment to compete favourably with the countries it signed the deal with.

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READ: FG to inject over N198 billion on capital projects in power sector in 2021

Capt. Olubadewo said, “In most cases, BASA entails specific agreement between two partners, where parties involved will agree on exchange of flights. It could be 10 flights weekly from Country A and same from the other Country.

“So, if US for instance, has done 10 flights to Nigeria as agreed and Nigeria has not, it will not affect US in anyway.”

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In his own case, Muyiwa Lucas, another stakeholder in the industry, claimed that the aim of the international carriers and their countries is to make sure that indigenous carriers do not rise to compete with them on those lucrative routes like Lagos-London, Abuja-London, Lagos-Dubai, Lagos-Paris, Lagos-Amsterdam, and Lagos-Johannesburg.

READ: Nigeria, India to conclude Bilateral Air Services Agreement deal

In an interview with Nairametrics, he said that the partners are always quick to choose a favourable destination in Nigeria (Lagos and Abuja), while they dictate to Nigeria the airport to land its aircrafts in their countries.

Lucas said, “Nigerian flights are only allowed to drop passengers at Gatwick, which handled 46.1 million passengers in 2018. They don’t allow such in Heathrow airport, which is London’s main hub and also one of the world’s busiest airports with 80.1 million passengers in 2018.

“Arik Air was stopped from operating from Abuja to London, unless it paid for slot allocation, which cost a huge amount of money.

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READ: Nigeria, Ethiopia sign visa waiver agreement

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“But, while British Airways was and is still flying to Abuja, enjoying grandfather rights; Arik Air was paying for slots and when the Nigerian airline deemed that operation unprofitable, it stopped, leaving only British Airways to be operating to Abuja from London with minimum load factor of 85%.”

Lucas argued that while some of the countries introduced clauses to jeopardise Nigerian airlines operation to their countries, Nigeria rarely retaliated in the spirit of diplomatic principle of reciprocity.

READ: Just in: FG bars Air France, KLM and other foreign airlines

However, Pranjal Pande, an Indian Aviation Expert, sees the development from a different angle.

According to him, Nigeria is home to a substantial Indian expatriate population, and India sees thousands of yearly visitors from Nigeria but noted that the lack of direct flights has meant passengers fly mostly with Middle East carriers.

Pande said, “Popular routes from Delhi and Mumbai to Lagos are over 4,100 nautical miles, putting them out of the range of the current generation of narrowbody aircraft. This means that, from India, only Vistara and Air India, the only airlines with widebodies, could start flights to Nigeria. Neither airline has signalled intentions of doing so soon.

READ: Nigeria @ 60: The Aviation sector and its travails

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“It’s most likely that Air Peace will be the first to start flights to India. However, the timing remains up in the air due to the current crisis.”

Backstory: On October 6, 2020, Nairametrics reported that the Federal Government announced the signing of Bilateral Air Service Agreements (BASA) with the United States, India, Morocco and Rwanda.


A copy of the agreement showed that it was signed in Abuja by President Muhammadu Buhari on September 30, 2020.

The disclosure was made by the Minister for Aviation, Hadi Sirika, through a tweet on his official Twitter handle on Tuesday, October 6, 2020.

What they are saying

The Minister said, “The agreement is the instruments of ratification of the bilateral air service agreement between Nigeria and USA, India, Morocco, as well as Rwanda.”

He added that Nigeria will take advantage of the agreement to strengthen economic, social and cultural ties with the US.

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Hospitality & Travel

Transport fare for motorcycle “Okada” more than doubled in 2020

Data from the NBS reveals the average fare paid by commuters for a journey by motorcycle more than doubled year on year.



Transport fare for motorcycle "Okada" more than doubled in 2020, Lagos State bans Gokada, ORide, MaxNG, others from 15 local governments 

Data from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) reveals the average fare paid by commuters for a journey by motorcycle per drop more than doubled year on year (September 2020 vs 2019 respectively).

This was contained in the recently released data on Transport fare for September 2020 in Nigeria. This covers bus journey within the city per drop, bus journey intercity, state route, charge per person, airfare charge for specified routes single journey, journey by motorcycle (Okada) per drop, and waterway passenger transport.

READ: Nigeria’s manufacturing sector contracts for 5th consecutive month – CBN 

Motorcycle Fares

  • According to the report, the average fare paid by commuters for the journey by motorcycle per drop increased by 10.47% MOM and by 111.11% YOY to N255.51 in September 2020 from N231.29 in August 2020.
  • The states with the highest journey fare by motorcycle per drop were Niger (N1,467.49), Kogi (N362.47), and Rivers (N345.80); while states with the lowest journey fare by motorcycle per drop were Adamawa (N76.55), Katsina (N100.84), and Kebbi (N125.60).
  • Similarly, the average fare paid by commuters for bus journeys within the city increased by 7.92% MOM and by 63.88% YOY to N309.73 in September 2020 from N286.99 in August 2020.

READ: These 3 states are the most expensive to travel from in Nigeria

READ: NBS discloses States with highest bus fares in Nigeria (Full List)

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Bus Fares

The states with the highest bus journey fare within the city were Zamfara (N579.84), Bauchi (N492.14), and Cross River (N416.32); while states with the lowest bus journey fare within the city were Abia (N188.50), Kebbi (N192.48), and Borno (N200.80).

  • The average fare paid by commuters for bus journey intercity increased by 0.36% MOM and by 24.30% YOY to N2,022.70 in September 2020 from N2,015.50 in August 2020.
  • The states with the highest bus journey fare intercity were Abuja FCT (N4,315.22), Lagos (N3,073.25), and Sokoto (N3,000.00); while states with the lowest bus journey fare within the city were Kwara (N223.45), Benue (N274.64), and Ondo (N291.07).

Explore Data on the Nairametrics Research Website

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Air Travel

Average fare paid by air passengers for specified routes single journey decreased by -4.59% MOM and increased by 20.60% YOY to N36,884.59 in September 2020 from N38,659.86 in August 2020.

  • The states with the highest airfare were Lagos (N39,750.00), Rivers (N39,520.00), and Anambra (N38,950.00); while states with the lowest airfare were Akwa Ibom (N32,500.00), Sokoto (N33,700.00), and Benue (N35,000.00).
  • The average fare paid by passengers for waterway passenger transport increased by 7.06% MOM and by 34.13% YOY to N734.26 in September 2020 from N685.82 in August 2020.
  • The states with the highest fare by waterway passenger transport were Bayelsa (N2,250.23), Rivers (N2,200.64), and Delta (N2,150.30); while states with the lowest fare by waterway passenger transport were Borno (N200.48), Gombe (N264.29), and Abuja FCT (N294.10).

READ: Nigeria’s inflation rate hits 13.71% as food prices soar

What this means: According to the NBS, transportation makes up 6.4% of consumption expenditure of millions of naira next only to food at over 50%. Transport is also a key input cost for determining food prices and conducting business in the country contributing to the inflation rate. A combination of bad roads. poor infrastructure, exchange rate devaluation, removal of fuel subsidies, and a general rise in prices of goods and services have impacted transportation costs across the country.


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Hospitality & Travel

FG to provide support to Aviation investors

FG to provide support and enabling environment for investors in aviation industry.



Federal Government has assured investors in the aviation industry that it is ready to provide support and enabling environment for them.

This was disclosed by the Minister of Aviation, Hadi Sirika, on Friday via the Ministry of Aviation’s Twitter handle.

According to the minister, the Federal Government through the ministry is always ready to provide support and enabling environment to those willing to invest in civil aviation.

READ: Aviation: Aviation sector grasps for stimulus in worst ever crisis

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While inspecting aviation facilities at the Caverton Group Helicopters headquarters in Lagos, he said,

I am here to see the investment they are making in the aviation industry.

“As one of the primary objectives of government, is providing full support to entrepreneurs in order to provide the needed services and employment for our people, and this is exactly what is happening here at @CavertonGroup…. I am willing to continue to support Caverton and other investors in civil aviation.”

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READ: COVID-19: Virgin Atlantic files for bankruptcy

The Minister emphasised that the Ministry under his leadership is re-orienting civil aviation bodies who are regulators to shift focus from being police in the industry to being enablers in the industry to create that partnership that will help to develop the industry and provide the services and employment for the people to kickstart the economy and ginger it as well as to add to the GDP of the country.

He added that these investments in Civil Aviation by Caverton Helicopters will certainly create more employment opportunities for the people and provide services that are needed in the country.

READ: Helicopter contracts pays off as Caverton post 65% rise in profits.

He further stated that, before now, the Aviation industry and services were dominated by foreigners, and that for Caverton Helicopters to embark on the massive investments, it is not only bridging the gap but creating a space for Nigeria to participate in.

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“I will like to thank the Chairman of Caverton Helicopters for their foresight and decision to participate in the civil aviation industry, they have done so far very well,” the Minister said.

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READ: FG to double number of airports across the country by 2023

Sirika added that the parcel of land used by Caverton was given to the organisation by FAAN.

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