The Central Bank recently introduced sweeping Foreign Exchange guidelines that is expected to eliminate or drastically reduce money laundering as we approach another election cycle. One of the changes announced was the replacement of the Wholesale Dutch Auction System (WDAS) with the Retail Dutch Auction System (RDAS) . In this blog post, I will attempt to differentiate between the WDAS and the RDAS.
What is a Dutch Auction System?
According to Investopedia A Dutch Auction System is
- A public offering auction structure in which the price of the offering is set after taking in all bids and determining the highest price at which the total offering can be sold. In this type of auction, investors place a bid for the amount they are willing to buy in terms of quantity and price.
A type of auction in which the price on an item is lowered until it gets a bid. The first bid made is the winning bid and results in a sale, assuming that the price is above the reserve price. This is in contrast to typical options, where the price rises as bidders compete.
To break it down further, for example, the CBN during its auction offers a total dollar sale of $200M. The apex bank offers foreign currency twice a week to keep the naira within a range of three percentage points above or below ₦155 per dollar. With this in mind Authorised Dealers who have various needs for dollars approach the auction for dollar purchase. Some may be willing to buy $20M, others $10M etc. So during the auction each Authorised dealer tables an offer that may be below the ₦155/$1 or above it depending on the forces of demand and supply. Therefore if there are more bids above the CBN’s preferred ₦155 those bidders get to buy dollars while those who bid below lose out and vice versa.
At the end of the Bid the CBN releases its results in its website. The last Bid for WDAS which took place on September 30 was announced as follows
SUMMARY OF WDAS NO 74/2013 OF 30TH SEPTEMBER, 2013
|Auction No||9/30/2013 held on 74|
|Total Amount Offered||US$ 300,000,000.00|
|Total Amount Demanded||US$ 0.00|
|Total Amount Sold||US$ 300,000,000.00|
|Highest Successfull Bid Rate||US$ 155.78|
|Lowest Bid Rate||155.75|
|No. of Successful||17|
|No. of Unsuccessful||0|
|Marginal Bid||US$ 155.75|
|Number of Banks||17|
- Each licensed BDC was required, to open a Naira Current Account with an Authorized Dealer of its choice, for the purpose of buying forex.
- A Bureau-de-Change is allowed to purchase forex from the CBN through a presentation of the CBN cheque issued by their banks twice a week (Tuesdays and Thursdays).
- The Bureau-de-Change purchase equivalent amount of forex from the CBN up to a maximum limit of US$200,000.00 twice a week.
Authorized Dealer BDCs
- The Authorized Dealer applies to CBN through the WDAS window on Mondays and Wednesdays for a maximum of US$2.0 million.
- The forex purchased by the Authorized Dealers is disbursed in cash and the BDCs in turn sell to end-users for eligible transactions only, such eligible transactions include:
- BTA at $5,000 per quarter and $20,000 per annum;
- PTA at $4,000 per quarter and $16,000 per annum; and others include:
- Mortgage monthly payment;
- School fees abroad;
- Medical fees abroad;
- Credit Card payment;
- Utility bills; and
- Life Assurance premium payment.
So What is the RDAS?
The RDAS is an acronym for the Retail Dutch Auction System and as the name implies is a direct sale of Forex by the CBN through the banks to the end users of the forex. Unlike the WDAS, the RDAS is based solely on actual demand of forex by the end users of the forex. As such, the Authorised dealers will only bid for forex based on the number of actual request it has received from its end users. For example, if an Authorised Dealer has received only $1million of confirmed dollar requests from its BDC’s and other end users it can only then bid for that $1million from the CBN auction unlike the WDAS where it can bid for more.
This is essentially Micro-managing??
Yes it is! The re-introduction of the RDAS is an effort by the CBN to micro-manage the sale and utilisation of forex in Nigeria.
Are there other essential differences between the RDAS and the WDAS?
Well, the CBN in their website differentates the two as follows;
- under the retail DAS, end-users were allowed to bid through their banks.
- under the WDAS, Authorised Dealer banks, bid on their accounts and the successful banks would then sell to their customers.
So what are the advantages of the RDAS?
The RDAS is basically a controlled form of forex transactions. By introducing this the CBN hopes to micro manage the sale and usage of forex. Some of the advantages are as follows
- Only confirmed users of forex for legitimate uses will have access to forex
- Round tripping is expected to be reduced as forex bought from the CBN is essentially monitored and can’t be used for reason other than those specified during bid application
- Banks will not be able to speculate in the interbank market as all banks will basically know that the dollars bought in any particular auction will be utilised fully before the next auction
- It will be difficult to sell forex bought from the CBN to the parallel market
Surely, the RDAS has some disadvantages too doesn’t it?
Well, we can start by looking at the advantages of the WDAS which is the reason why the CBN replaced the RDAS in 2006. However, there really isn’t many as the major difference between the two is that of control. If you therefore are against tight regulations then you will dislike the RDAS and vice versa.
But there is still one major disadvantage that the RDAS has which is that by virtue of its limited status it can create an artificial scarcity of forex. Because the CBN only sells forex to confirmed users other arbitrary users of forex will not be able to buy readily. For example, if you suddenly need to buy $10,000 cash for a transaction, you will have to buy only from a BDC who has that forex. Since, their activities are now heavily regulated it is likely that they may not have as they may have been expected to sell off their stock piles already.
This in turn fetes a parallel market. Therefore, it is likely that importers of forex like tourist or travellers will more than likely sell forex at higher rates to the black market than they would if they sell to the BDC.
Even the CBN acknowledges this point when they touted one of the major achievements of the WDAS. According to them “Sale of Foreign Exchange to Bureaux-de-Change operators in an effort to increase access of foreign exchange to small end-users, bridge the supply gap and develop the local Bureaux-de-Change (BDCs)“.
The New CBN guidelines re introducing the RDAS also introduced new guidelines. Their disadvantages or advantages depends on what side of the glass you are in. They are as follows;
- Authorised Dealers/Banks will no longer have substantial stock pile of dollars to meet the insatiable need of forex by customers
- The CBN will have to dedicate enormous resources towards micro managing the activities of the Authorised Dealers and the BDC’s
- Authorised Dealers and BDC’s will also have to fill huge amount of paper work brought thus increasing their operational cost
- Authorised Dealers will continue to sell dollars to the maximum of $250,000 per week to BDC’s. However, KYC forms of the BDC’s will need to be filed and updated regularly.
- Importer and Exporters of products and services who rely regularly on forex will now need to also dedicate time and resources to strict documentation processes.
- Increasing scrutiny in the application and usage of forex by all parties. The CBN scrutinises the Authorised Dealers who in-turn scrutinise the activities of the BDC’s and the End users etc.
- Debit/ Credit card transactions in forex has now been increased from $40,000 per annum to $150,000 per annum. This means if you are traveling you no longer need to buy forex from the black market. With your local debit cards you can go to any ATM abroad to withdraw forex at the prevailing exchange rate locally.
- Beneficiaries of Western Union and other money transfer networks can only now receive cash in Naira rather than in forex.
- Corporates who import dollars into the country through banks will now have to declare this import and reasons for brining it in. The forex imported will be converted to Naira immediately upon entry and a Certificate of Capital Importation (CCI) will be issued immediately. Before now, importers of forex need not apply for a CCI.
- Importers intending to pay for imports of non-regulated products of not more than $250,000 per annum using telegraphic transfers shall only complete the “e-Form M online” supported with a pro forma invoice. However, shipping documents must be submitted by the importer through its processing bank not later than 90 days from the date of the transfer.
Like I mentioned, a lot of these new developments may seem like an over kill or necessary depending on your informed perspective.
COVID-19 Update in Nigeria
On the 8th of July 2020, 460 new confirmed cases and 15 deaths were recorded in Nigeria.
The spread of novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) in Nigeria continue to record significant increase as the latest statistics provided by the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control reveal Nigeria now has 30,249 confirmed cases.
On the 8th of July 2020, 460 new confirmed cases and 15 deaths were recorded in Nigeria, having carried out a total test of 169,629 samples across the country.
To date, 30,249 cases have been confirmed, 12,373 cases have been discharged and 684 deaths have been recorded in 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory. A total of 169,629 tests have been carried out as of July 6th, 2020 compared to 152,952 tests a day earlier.
COVID-19 Case Updates- 8th July 2020,
- Total Number of Cases – 30,249
- Total Number Discharged – 12,373
- Total Deaths – 684
- Total Tests Carried out – 169,629
According to the NCDC, the 460 new cases were reported from 21 states- Lagos (150), Rivers (49), Oyo (43), Delta (38), FCT (26), Anambra (20), Kano (20), Plateau (18), Edo (14), Bayelsa (13), Enugu (13), Osun (12), Kwara (10), Borno (8), Ogun (7), Kaduna (6), Imo (4), Bauchi (3), Gombe (3), Niger (2), Adamawa (1).
Meanwhile, the latest numbers bring Lagos state total confirmed cases to 11,670, followed by Abuja (2,348), Oyo (1,573), Edo (1,503), Delta (1,323), Kano (1,291), Rivers (1,284), Ogun (1,057), Kaduna (889), Katsina (628), Borno (563), Ondo (550), Gombe (524), Bauchi (519), Ebonyi (503), Plateau (478), Enugu (431), Abia (400), Imo (356), Jigawa (318).
Kwara state has recorded 307 cases, Bayelsa (282), Nasarawa (234), Osun (210), Sokoto (153), Niger (124), Benue (121), Akwa Ibom (112), Adamawa (100), Anambra (93), Kebbi (86), Zamfara (76), Yobe (61), Ekiti (45), Taraba (27), while Kogi and Cross River state have recorded 5 cases each.
Lock Down and Curfew
In a move to combat the spread of the pandemic disease, President Muhammadu Buhari directed the cessation of all movements in Lagos and the FCT for an initial period of 14 days, which took effect from 11 pm on Monday, 30th March 2020.
The movement restriction, which was extended by another two-weeks period, has been partially put on hold with some businesses commencing operations from May 4. On April 27th, 2020, Nigeria’s President, Muhammadu Buhari declared an overnight curfew from 8 pm to 6 am across the country, as part of new measures to contain the spread of the COVID-19. This comes along with the phased and gradual easing of lockdown measures in FCT, Lagos, and Ogun States, which took effect from Saturday, 2nd May 2020, at 9 am.
On Monday, 29th June 2020 the federal government extended the second phase of the eased lockdown by 4 weeks and approved interstate movement outside curfew hours with effect from July 1, 2020.
|Date||Confirmed case||New cases||Total deaths||New deaths||Total recovery||Active cases||Critical cases|
|July 8, 2020||30249||460||684||15||12373||17192||7|
|July 7, 2020||29789||503||669||15||12108||17012||7|
|July 6, 2020||29286||575||654||9||11828||16804||7|
|July 5, 2020||28711||544||645||11||11665||16401||7|
|July 4, 2020||28167||603||634||6||11462||16071||7|
|July 3, 2020||27564||454||628||12||11069||15867||7|
|July 2, 2020||27110||626||616||13||10801||15693||7|
|July 1, 2020||26484||790||603||13||10152||15729||7|
|June 30, 2020||25694||561||590||17||9746||15358||7|
|June 29, 2020||25133||566||573||8||9402||15158||7|
|June 28, 2020||24867||490||565||7||9007||14995||7|
|June 27, 2020||24077||779||558||4||8625||14894||7|
|June 26, 2020||23298||684||554||5||8253||14491||7|
|June 25, 2020||22614||594||549||7||7822||14243||7|
|June 24, 2020||22020||649||542||9||7613||13865||7|
|June 23, 2020||21371||452||533||8||7338||13500||7|
|June 22, 2020||20919||675||525||7||7109||13285||7|
|June 21, 2020||20242||436||518||12||6879||12847||7|
|June 20, 2020||19808||661||506||19||6718||12584||7|
|June 19, 2020||19147||667||487||12||6581||12079||7|
|June 18, 2020||18480||745||475||6||6307||11698||7|
|June 17, 2020||17735||587||469||14||5967||11299||7|
|June 16, 2020||17148||490||455||31||5623||11070||7|
|June 15, 2020||16658||573||424||4||5349||10885||7|
|June 14, 2020||16085||403||420||13||5220||10445||7|
|June 13, 2020||15682||501||407||8||5101||10174||7|
|June 12, 2020||15181||627||399||12||4891||9891||7|
|June 11, 2020||14554||681||387||5||4494||9673||7|
|June 10, 2020||13873||409||382||17||4351||9140||7|
|June 9, 2020||13464||663||365||4||4206||8893||7|
|June 8, 2020||12801||315||361||7||4040||8400||7|
|June 7, 2020||12486||260||354||12||3959||8173||7|
|June 6, 2020||12233||389||342||9||3826||8065||7|
|June 5, 2020||11844||328||333||10||3696||7815||7|
|June 4, 2020||11516||350||323||8||3535||7646||7|
|June 3, 2020||11166||348||315||1||3329||7522||7|
|June 2, 2020||10819||241||314||15||3239||7266||7|
|June 1, 2020||10578||416||299||12||3122||7157||9|
|May 31, 2020||10162||307||287||14||3007||6868||7|
|May 30, 2020||9855||553||273||12||2856||6726||7|
|May 29, 2020||9302||387||261||2||2697||6344||7|
|May 28, 2020||8915||182||259||5||2592||6064||7|
|May 27, 2020||8733||389||254||5||2501||5978||7|
|May 26, 2020||8344||276||249||16||2385||5710||7|
|May 25, 2020||8068||229||233||7||2311||5524||7|
|May 24, 2020||7839||313||226||5||2263||5360||7|
|May 23, 2020||7526||265||221||0||2174||5131||7|
|May 22, 2020||7261||245||221||10||2007||5033||7|
|May 21, 2020||7016||339||211||11||1907||4898||7|
|May 20, 2020||6677||284||200||8||1840||4637||7|
|May 19, 2020||6401||226||192||1||1734||4475||7|
|May 18, 2020||6175||216||191||9||1644||4340||7|
|May 17, 2020||5959||388||182||6||1594||4183||7|
|May 16, 2020||5621||176||176||5||1472||3973||7|
|May 15, 2020||5445||288||171||3||1320||3954||4|
|May 14, 2020||5162||193||168||3||1180||3815||4|
|May 13, 2020||4971||184||164||6||1070||3737||4|
|May 12, 2020||4787||146||158||6||959||3670||4|
|May 11, 2020||4641||242||152||10||902||3589||4|
|May 10, 2020||4399||248||142||17||778||3479||4|
|May 9, 2020||4151||239||127||11||745||3278||4|
|May 8, 2020||3912||386||118||10||679||3115||4|
|May 7, 2020||3526||381||108||4||601||2818||4|
|May 6, 2020||3145||195||104||5||534||2507||1|
|May 5, 2020||2950||148||99||5||481||2370||4|
|May 4, 2020||2802||245||94||6||417||2291||2|
|May 3, 2020||2558||170||88||2||400||2070||2|
|May 2, 2020||2388||220||86||17||351||1952||2|
|May 1, 2020||2170||238||69||10||351||1751||2|
|April 30, 2020||1932||204||59||7||317||1556||2|
|April 29, 2020||1728||196||52||7||307||1369||2|
|April 28, 2020||1532||195||45||4||255||1232||2|
|April 27, 2020||1337||64||41||0||255||994||2|
|April 26, 2020||1273||91||41||5||239||994||2|
|April 25, 2020||1182||87||36||3||222||925||2|
|April 24, 2020||1095||114||33||1||208||855||2|
|April 23, 2020||981||108||32||3||197||753||2|
|April 22, 2020||873||91||29||3||197||648||2|
|April 21, 2020||782||117||26||3||197||560||2|
|April 20, 2020||665||38||23||1||188||466||2|
|April 19, 2020||627||86||22||2||170||436||2|
|April 18, 2020||541||48||20||2||166||356||2|
|April 17, 2020||493||51||18||4||159||317||2|
|April 16, 2020||442||35||13||1||152||277||2|
|April 15, 2020||407||34||12||1||128||267||2|
|April 14, 2020||373||30||11||1||99||263||2|
|April 13, 2020||343||20||10||0||91||242||2|
|April 12, 2020||323||5||10||0||85||228||2|
|April 11, 2020||318||13||10||3||70||238||2|
|April 10, 2020||305||17||7||0||58||240||2|
|April 9, 2020||288||14||7||1||51||230||2|
|April 8, 2020||274||22||6||0||44||226||2|
|April 7, 2020||254||16||6||1||44||204||2|
|April 6, 2020||238||6||5||0||35||198||2|
|April 5, 2020||232||18||5||1||33||194||2|
|April 4, 2020||214||5||4||0||25||185||0|
|April 3, 2020||209||25||4||2||25||180||0|
|April 2, 2020||184||10||2||0||20||162||0|
|April 1, 2020||174||35||2||0||9||163||0|
|March 31, 2020||139||8||2||0||9||128||0|
|March 30, 2020||131||20||2||1||8||121||0|
|March 29, 2020||111||22||1||0||3||107||0|
|March 28, 2020||89||19||1||0||3||85||0|
|March 27, 2020||70||5||1||0||3||66||0|
|March 26, 2020||65||14||1||0||2||62||0|
|March 25, 2020||51||7||1||0||2||48||0|
|March 24, 2020||44||4||1||0||2||41||0|
|March 23, 2020||40||10||1||1||2||37||0|
|March 22, 2020||30||8||0||0||2||28||0|
|March 21, 2020||22||10||0||0||1||21||0|
|March 20, 2020||12||4||0||0||1||11||0|
|March 19, 2020||8||0||0||0||1||7||0|
|March 18, 2020||8||5||0||0||1||7||0|
|March 17, 2020||3||1||0||0||0||3||0|
|March 16, 2020||2||0||0||0||0||2||0|
|March 15, 2020||2||0||0||0||0||2||0|
|March 14, 2020||2||0||0||0||0||2||0|
|March 13, 2020||2||0||0||0||0||2||0|
|March 12, 2020||2||0||0||0||0||2||0|
|March 11, 2020||2||0||0||0||0||2||0|
|March 10, 2020||2||0||0||0||0||2||0|
|March 9, 2020||2||1||0||0||0||2||0|
|March 8, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|March 7, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|March 6, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|March 5, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|March 4, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|March 3, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|March 2, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|March 1, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|February 29, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|February 28, 2020||1||1||0||0||0||1||0|
Update: FG suspends reopening of schools, students won’t write 2020 WAEC exams
The Minister of Education, Adamu Adamu, said that WAEC should suspend exams.
The Federal Government has just announced that schools under its control will not be reopening for the forthcoming West African Examination Council (WAEC) exams.
This was disclosed in a tweet post by the aide to President Muhammadu Buhari on New Media, Tolu Ogunlesi from his official Twitter handle on Wednesday, July 8, 2020.
According to Ogunlesi, the Minister of Education, Adamu Adamu, said that WAEC should suspend exams and also urges State Governments to toe the line of the Federal Government as this is not the right time to reopen.
According to the tweet post, ‘’Minister of Education has just announced that schools under control of the Federal Government will not be reopening for the forthcoming WAEC exams. Says WAEC should suspend exams and urges State Governments to toe Federal Government line. This is not the right time to reopen,’’
Adamu, while addressing state house correspondents after the virtual Federal Executive Council meeting on Wednesday, July 8, 2020, said that none of the schools under the control of his ministry will resume until schools are considered safe enough
The Minister appealed to the State Governments that have already announced the resumption of schools to reconsider that as it is not safe and the students should be protected. He said that he would prefer that students lose an academic year than expose them to dangers.
He also debunked an earlier report that claimed that the Minister of State for Education, Emeka Nwajiuba, announced that schools will be resuming on August 4, 2020. Adamu said that the Minister of State must have been misquoted as the schools under the supervision of the ministry will not be opening on August 4 or anytime soon.
Going further, Adamu pointed out that WAEC will not determine what Nigeria will do as he will rather have the country lose a school year than exposing the students to danger.
Tizeti reinstates Kendall Ananyi as CEO after investigation into alleged sexual misconduct
The investigations into the allegations could not establish a case of sexual harassment, .
Following the conclusion of the independent special investigation, Tizeti Board of directors have reinstated Kendall Ananyi as Chief Executive Officer.
With this development, the interim Co-CEOs Ifeanyi Okonkwo and Patricia Aiyedun, will return to their respective positions as Chief Operating Officer, and Chief Financial Officer.
According to a statement published on its website, the company stated that investigations into the allegations of sexual harassment could not establish a case of sexual harassment.
The board had on June 7 appointed an Independent Special Investigation Committee of its Board of Directors to investigate allegations of sexual harassment made against Kendall Ananyi, the embattled CEO.
To ensure the independence of the committee, the CEO stepped down and was walled off from communications with the Independent Special Investigation Committee and any matters related to the investigation, the statement read.
After a month of investigations, the committee led by Senior Advocate of Nigeria Olumide Sofowora, SAN, C.Arb. of Olumide Sofowora Chambers, stated that no clear case of sexual harassment had been established, and recommended that the CEO be reinstated.
According to the statement, the committee researched “what actions would constitute sexual harassment, gathered relevant information from a number of sources in both Nigeria and Ghana, and conducted a number of interviews, including separately interviewing both the accuser and Mr. Ananyi”.
It was based on this that the independent legal counsel concluded that a clear case of sexual harassment had not been established.
The company promised that a sexual harassment policy would be put in place going forward.
“Tizeti remains fully committed to high ethical standards, gender equality, providing a workplace that is free from sexual harassment and ensuring that its diverse team feels comfortable and safe at all times.
“Tizeti wants to ensure that it has best in class policies and procedures going forward. As a result, Tizeti will be updating its code of conduct and putting in place a sexual harassment policy that is in line with best practices and encourages the reporting of any potential incidents,” it said.