This article breakdown investing in Mutual Funds in Nigeria.
What is a Mutual Fund?
A mutual fund can be defined is an entity that pools cash from a variety of investors for the sole purpose of investing the cash in shares, bonds, treasury bills etc (all together called a portfolio of investments). The profit derived from the diversified pool of investments are shared to investors in the funds annually or semi annually or as stipulated in the fund prospectus.
Who Operates a Mutual Fund?
Mutual Funds are operated by professional investment firms made up of people who are savvy with the money and capital market. Mutual Fund, like in Nigeria can be operated by the Investment arm of banks, stock brokerage firms, investment banks etc.
How is it different from a stockbroking firm?
A stockbroking firm is simply a company that on your behalf and instruction uses its license to buy and/or sell shares on the stock market. With a stock brokerage firm you give them an instruction to buy or sell shares of your choice. You also keep tabs of the performance of your stocks on a daily basis and monitor its performance independently. For a Mutual Fund however, they determine which Investment decisions to make rather than you giving instruction as to what shares should be bought for you or which you intend to sell. The shares you buy with the Mutual Fund is that of the fund and not that of the companies quoted on the stock exchange or indeed any quoted investments.
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Do they only invest in stocks?
Off course not. Mutual Funds mainly invest in broad and diversified pool of investments. However these can be grouped into two;
A – Money Market
B – Capital Markets
Money Market – Example of Money Market instruments are Treasury Bills, Certificate of Deposits, Commercial Paper etc. These instruments are mostly debt note with a promise to pay a stipulated interest rates and the principal at a predetermined date.
Capital Markets – Capital Markets are markets where Bonds, Stocks (Shares) are traded on a daily basis. So, a Mutual Fund can also use your money to invest in stocks and bonds. For example, when they invest in shares they hope that the value will appreciate thus increase the value of their fund or making them a nice profit when they sell the shares.
But please note, most mutual funds usually outline the type of investments they hope to invest your money in. This can be found in their prospectus.
Do All Mutual Funds invest in the same categories of funds?
There are mainly 3 categories of funds they typically invest in
I. Fixed Income Funds – These are funds that are meant mostly to invest in fixed income securities. Fixed Income Securities are investments that pay a fixed return on an investment. For example, treasury bills offered by the Government are issued at a coupon (rate) of say 10%pa. Meaning, they pay an interest of 10% on any amount invested. Mutual Funds that are Fixed Income Related look out for safe investments that can guarantee a good income stream. They mostly suited for investors with a long term view towards returns. Fixed Income Funds are safe investments as it mostly involves securities in government securities. Due to the nature of government securities their returns are typically low.
II. Equity Funds – These are Mutual Funds that invest mostly in stocks and shares of companies are quoted. Some funds can also use fund assets to subscribe shares for private placements. Equity Funds offer high returns but are associated with high risk.
III. Mixed Income Funds – Mixed Income funds are a hybrid of Equity Funds and Fixed Income Funds. Because of their diversified nature, they often offer low risk for investors. Low risk as usual is associated with low returns.
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Why Should I even Invest in them?
Mutual Funds afford people who do not have the time to invest in the money and capital market or do not know much about the business of buying and selling securities an opportunity to invest and make money. It also gives them an opportunity to save for the futre. By investing in mutual funds you have an opportunity of investing in a portfolio of heterogeneous instruments rather than having your money in just one basket. For example, your N100k investment in a single mutual fund can represent an investment in bonds, stocks, treasury bills etc.
How Much Can I Give them?
Mutual Funds typically have an investment band depending on the nature of the fund. Some can be as low as a minimum of N5,000, whilst some can be N100,000 and others N1,000,000.
Is it Profitable?
Like a every other business Mutual Funds are also exposed to the same risk and rewards that can determine whether they make or loose money. But since no business originally sets out to loose money they will often tell you that they are profitable. However, you can know how profitable a mutual fund is or can be if the fund owners already have a history. Most of the managers already have experience in running funds and so must have track records of their performance in the past. It is also important that you look at what type of returns they intend to offer to their investors.
What kind of returns can I expect?
This depends on the your risk appetite. For example, if you have N100k and think you can invest it in any business of your choice and get a profit of N20%, then investing in a mutual fund that promises 14% returns may not be a good idea for you. The return a mutual fund promises you should also be compared to returns one can get on risk free investments such as treasury bills etc. For example, if a Mutual Fund promises a minimum return of 12%pa and Government Pays interest of 14% on Treasury Bills, then investing yourself may just be a better idea. In general mutual funds will typically offer minimum returns that are benchmarked above inflation rates.
Are my returns tax free
No. The profit derived from investing in Mutual Funds are not tax free. Hence you will be taxed on the profit obtained by the relevant tax authority. Losses from Mutual Fund investment can not also be used to offset taxable profits.
What are open and closed mutual funds?
Open Ended Mutual Funds are funds that are open to continuous issuance of shares to investors. Operators of the fund continue to issue shares to the public to buy into the fund. Investors in the fund who do not wish to participate any further will simply resell their shares to the fund at the subsisting Net Asset Value. They can also reinvest in the funds whenever they want. Some Open Ended Funds also mandate you to keep your money with them for a specified period of time before you can sell or request for your money back. Open Funds are very common.
Closed Ended funds on the other hand are funds that have limited number of shares that are sold at the initial public offering (IPO). Once the IPO is over, the fund closes sale of its shares to the public. Being a regulated fund, the shares are traded on the stock exchange like the shares of any quoted company. So, if an Investor decides he want his money back he will simply put up his shares for sale. The share price of a closed fund are determined by both the Value of the Portfolio as well as the sentiments of investors towards demand and supply. This is unlike the Open Funds that are determined by simply dividing the value of the portfolio by the number of shares issues by the fund.
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Which is best for me?
This is a matter of personal choice and risk appetite. Closed Ended Funds are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission as well as the NSE. They play by the rules set by the regulatory authorities. Their share price are also published daily on the pages of Newspapers and can also be found on the internet. Open Funds are mostly unregulated and are not traded on the floor of the stock exchange. They are mostly floated by reputable organisations with a track record for performance.
What is in it for the fund managers?
Fund Managers are in it for the fees they charge you for helping you invest your money. They sometimes charge you fees upfront when you invest and also charge you a fee when they make a profit on your investment. Remember, profits are declared after deducting from revenue, cost of investments, statutory expenses, taxes, etc. Managers can charge fees ranging from 2% – 5% of the Value of the Portfolio
This article was first published on Nairametrics on July 16, 2012. It has been updated with new information.
DMO announces May 2021 FGN savings bond offer for subscription
The DMO has announced the offer for subscription of the May 2021 Federal Government Savings Bond to investors.
The Debt Management Office (DMO), on behalf of the Federal Government has announced the offer for subscription of the May 2021 Federal Government Savings Bond to investors.
This disclosure is contained in a circular issued by the DMO on May 3, 2021, and can be seen on its website noting that there are 2-year and 3-year savings bonds.
A breakdown of the bonds shows that the 2-year FGN savings bond will be due on May 12, 2023, at 7.753% per annum and the 3-year FGN Savings Bond which will be due on May 12, 2024, at 8.753% per annum.
The offer has an opening date of May 3, with a closing date of May 7, while the settlement date is May 12, with the coupon payment dates as follows: August 12, November 12, February 12 and May 12.
The circular also states that the unit of sale is N1,000 per unit subject to a minimum subscription of N5,000 and in multiples of N1,000 thereafter, subject to a maximum subscription of N50,000,000
It also states that the interest is payable quarterly with the redemption expected to be in bullet payment on the maturity date.
In case you missed it
It can be recalled that last month, the DMO on behalf of the Federal Government, offered for subscription April 2021, Federal Government Savings Bond to investors.
The offer consisted of a 2-Year FGN Savings Bond due April 14, 2023, at 5.522% per annum and a 3-year FGN Savings Bond due April 14, 2024, at 6.522% per annum.
The opening date was April 6, 2021, with the closing date on April 9, 2021, settlement date on April 14, 2021, and the coupon payment dates on July 14, October 14, January 14, and April 14.
CBN’s N88 billion treasury bill auction yesterday was oversubscribed by 174.62%
At the end of the auction, one-year treasury bills sold for 9.75% per annum.
The Central Bank of Nigeria’s (CBN) Treasury Bills Auction worth N88.46 billion was oversubscribed by 174.6% yesterday. The stop rates for the 91 and 182-day tenor bills fixed at 2.00% and 3.50% respectively.
The stop rate of the 364-day tenor bill was pegged at 9.75% according to the result of the NTB auction.
The apex bank recorded N242.94 billion in total subscription, as the treasury bill auction was oversubscribed by 174.62%, however, T-bills worth N88.46 billion were provided across the 91-day, 182-day and 364-day tenors at the primary auction.
At the end of the auction, bills worth about N129.46 billion were allotted to investors.
Demand for Treasury Bills Surge
Demand for Treasury Bills has surged in recent months as yield-hungry investors scamper away from equities into risk-free government securities. While 2020 was marred with ultra-low interest rates on fixed income securities like Treasury Bills, yields have spiked in recent weeks to the surprise of investors.
With inflation rate galloping past 18% the pressure to flee the naira appears to have forced the central bank to revise its monetary policy strategy, allowing rates to rise.
Summary of the NTB Auction today
The 91-day bill was undersubscribed by 7.51% as it received a subscription of N10.53 billion, against an initial offer of N11.39 billion.
The 182-day tenor bill on the other hand performed well, as it was oversubscribed by 50.87% with an impressive subscription of N9.05 billion which was received yesterday, against an offer of N223.35 billion.
The 364-day tenor bill recorded the highest subscription with an oversubscription rate of 214.25%, as investors’ total subscription was valued at N223.35 billion, relative to an initial offer of N71.07 billion.
The breakdown of the allotment
At the close of the auction yesterday, about N7.19 billion of the 91-day tenor bill was allotted, lower than the initial offer of N11.39 billion, while N6 billion worth of the 182-day bill was allotted to investors.
With the settlement for the bill pegged for the 29th of April 2021, about N116.27 billion of the 364-day tenor bill was also allotted to investors.
The oversubscribed bills confirm the huge demand for risk-free government securities amidst a dearth of sizeable investment funds.
What you should know
- The treasury bills were auctioned in a Dutch auction structure, as the price of the offerings were set after bids were received to determine the highest price at which the total offering could be sold.
- This provided investors with the opportunity to place bids for the amount they were willing to buy in terms of quantity and price.
- The range of bids was placed at 1.99 and 10.00 for the 91-day tenor; 3.49 and 10.00 for the 182-day tenor, 8.8943 and 15.00 for the 364-day tenor.
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