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Debt Securities

A guide to how Mutual Funds work in Nigeria

A guide to how Mutual Funds work in Nigeria

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mutual funds

This article breakdown investing in Mutual Funds in Nigeria.

What is a Mutual Fund?

A mutual fund can be defined is an entity that pools cash from a variety of investors for the sole purpose of investing the cash in shares, bonds, treasury bills etc (all together called a portfolio of investments). The profit derived from the diversified pool of investments are shared to investors in the funds annually or semi annually or as stipulated in the fund prospectus.

Who Operates a Mutual Fund?

Mutual Funds are operated by professional investment firms made up of people who are savvy with the money and capital market. Mutual Fund, like in Nigeria can be operated by the Investment arm of banks, stock brokerage firms, investment banks etc.

How is it different from a stockbroking firm?

A stockbroking firm is simply a company that on your behalf and instruction uses its license to buy and/or sell shares on the stock market. With a stock brokerage firm you give them an instruction to buy or sell shares of your choice. You also keep tabs of the performance of your stocks on a daily basis and monitor its performance independently. For a Mutual Fund however, they determine which Investment decisions to make rather than you giving instruction as to what shares should be bought for you or which you intend to sell. The shares you buy with the Mutual Fund is that of the fund and not that of the companies quoted on the stock exchange or indeed any quoted investments.

[Read Also: These poor investment decisions has ruined lives]

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Do they only invest in stocks?

Off course not. Mutual Funds mainly invest in broad and diversified pool of investments. However these can be grouped into two;

A –  Money Market

B – Capital Markets

Money Market – Example of Money Market  instruments are Treasury Bills, Certificate of Deposits, Commercial Paper etc. These instruments are mostly debt note with a promise to pay a stipulated interest rates and the principal at a predetermined date.

More articles

https://nairametrics.com/investing-in-nigerian-bonds-101/

Capital Markets – Capital Markets are markets where Bonds, Stocks (Shares) are traded on a daily basis. So, a Mutual Fund can also use your money to invest in stocks and bonds. For example, when they invest in shares they hope that the value will appreciate thus increase the value of their fund or making them a nice profit when they sell the shares.

But please note, most mutual funds usually outline the type of investments they hope to invest your money in. This can be found in their prospectus.

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Do All Mutual Funds invest in the same categories of funds?

There are mainly 3 categories of funds they typically invest in

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I. Fixed Income Funds – These are funds that are meant mostly to invest in fixed income securities. Fixed Income Securities are investments that pay a fixed return on an investment. For example, treasury bills offered by the Government are issued at a coupon (rate) of say 10%pa. Meaning, they pay an interest of 10% on any amount invested. Mutual Funds that are Fixed Income Related look out for safe investments that can guarantee a good income stream. They mostly suited for investors with a long term view towards returns. Fixed Income Funds are safe investments as it mostly involves securities in government securities. Due to the nature of government securities their returns are typically low.

II. Equity Funds – These are Mutual Funds that invest mostly in stocks and shares of companies are quoted. Some funds can also use fund assets to subscribe shares for private placements. Equity Funds offer high returns but are associated with high risk.

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III. Mixed Income Funds – Mixed Income funds are a hybrid of Equity Funds and Fixed Income Funds. Because of their diversified nature, they often offer low risk for investors. Low risk as usual is associated with low returns.

[Read Also: Relationship talks: Money questions you must ask]

Why Should I even Invest in them?

Mutual Funds afford people who do not have the time to invest in the money and capital market or do not know much about the business of buying and selling securities an opportunity to invest and make money. It also gives them an opportunity to save for the futre. By investing in mutual funds you have an opportunity of investing in a portfolio of heterogeneous instruments rather than having your money in just one basket. For example, your N100k investment in a single mutual fund can represent an investment in bonds, stocks, treasury bills etc.

How Much Can I Give them?

Mutual Funds typically have an investment band depending on the nature of the fund. Some can be as low as a minimum of N5,000, whilst some can be N100,000 and others N1,000,000.

Is it Profitable?

Like a every other business Mutual Funds are also exposed to the same risk and rewards that can determine whether they make or loose money. But since no business originally sets out to loose money they will often tell you that they are profitable. However, you can know how profitable a mutual fund is or can be if the fund owners already have a history. Most of the managers already have experience in running funds and so must have track records of their performance in the past. It is also important that you look at what type of returns they intend to offer to their investors.

What kind of returns can I expect?

This depends on the your risk appetite. For example, if you have N100k and think you can invest it in any business of your choice and get a profit of N20%, then investing in a mutual fund that promises 14% returns may not be a good idea for you. The return a mutual fund promises you should also be compared to returns one can get on risk free investments such as treasury bills etc. For example, if a Mutual Fund promises a minimum return of 12%pa and Government Pays interest of 14% on Treasury Bills, then investing yourself may just be a better idea. In general mutual funds will typically offer minimum returns that are benchmarked above inflation rates.

Are my returns tax free

No. The profit derived from investing in Mutual Funds are not tax free. Hence you will be taxed on the profit obtained by the relevant tax authority. Losses from Mutual Fund investment can not also be used to offset taxable profits.

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What are open and closed mutual funds?

Open Ended Mutual Funds are funds that are open to continuous issuance of shares to investors. Operators of the fund continue to issue shares to the public to buy into the fund. Investors in the fund who do not wish to participate any further will simply resell their shares to the fund at the subsisting Net Asset Value. They can also reinvest in the funds whenever they want. Some Open Ended Funds also mandate you to keep your money with them for a specified period of time before you can sell or request for your money back. Open Funds are very common.

Closed Ended funds on the other hand are funds that have limited number of shares that are sold at the initial public offering (IPO). Once the IPO is over, the fund closes sale of its shares to the public. Being a regulated fund, the shares are traded on the stock exchange like the shares of any quoted company. So, if an Investor decides he want his money back he will simply put up his shares for sale. The share price of a closed fund are determined by both the Value of the Portfolio as well as the sentiments of investors towards demand and supply. This is unlike the Open Funds that are determined by simply dividing the value of the portfolio by the number of shares issues by the fund.

[Read Also: How to avoid borrowing to pay school fees]

Which is best for me?

This is a matter of personal choice and risk appetite. Closed Ended Funds are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission as well as the NSE. They play by the rules set by the regulatory authorities. Their share price are also published daily on the pages of Newspapers and can also be found on the internet. Open Funds are mostly unregulated and are not traded on the floor of the stock exchange. They are mostly floated by reputable organisations with a track record for performance.

What is in it for the fund managers?

Fund Managers are in it for the fees they charge you for helping you invest your money. They sometimes charge you fees upfront when you invest and also charge you a fee when they make a profit on your investment. Remember, profits are declared after deducting from revenue, cost of investments, statutory expenses, taxes, etc. Managers can charge fees ranging from 2% – 5% of the Value of the Portfolio

 

This article was first published on Nairametrics on July 16, 2012. It has been updated with new information.

Nairametrics is Nigeria's top business news and financial analysis website. We focus on providing resources that help small businesses and retail investors make better investing decisions. Nairametrics is updated daily by a team of professionals. Post updated as "Nairametrics" are published by our Editorial Board.

16 Comments

16 Comments

  1. amina.

    December 13, 2012 at 8:06 am

    Tnxx a lot for the information here. Still need to read theu tho because all these terms are new to me

  2. Lanre Olokun

    January 8, 2014 at 8:05 am

    A very enlightening article.
    With Mutual Funds, killing more than one bird with a stone is possible.
    However, the level of awareness for it is quite low in Nigeria. My observation though.
    Thank you.

    • Ugodre

      January 8, 2014 at 8:46 am

      Good observation. Guess people are still scared of leaving their money in the hands of others. The SEC needs to introduce strong regulations to make it more attractive.

  3. Anonymous

    September 26, 2017 at 9:42 am

    Thanks its informative…..

  4. Anonymous

    January 19, 2018 at 8:07 pm

    Good information…….thank you

  5. GRACE AGADA

    October 6, 2018 at 5:10 pm

    Well done Ugo. Very simplified and informative, more of what we need in a market that is full of confusing and technical investment debris

  6. Wilfred Michael

    November 12, 2018 at 1:41 am

    Excellent article. Straight to the point and easy to grab.

  7. Chinelo Ugwu

    April 12, 2019 at 11:14 am

    Mutual fund is a blessing. I only wish I knew about it earlier. Thank you so much Ugodre

  8. Temitope

    April 12, 2019 at 11:49 am

    What a good write up and pieces of information. I learned some terminologies in financial institutions.
    Thank you.
    Someday I will become an investor in NSE

  9. Anonymous

    May 13, 2019 at 7:11 pm

    Great job !!! Thanks for the simplicity

  10. Faisal Nassarawa

    September 29, 2019 at 12:22 pm

    I love this article, very informative. I would love to know what are the requirements for setting up a mutual fund in Nigeria.

  11. Anonymous

    November 20, 2019 at 2:03 am

    Thank you, been of much help.

  12. Louis Adoyi

    February 23, 2020 at 5:00 pm

    Where have nairametric been all my life. Good to discover your existence. Nice article, I love the clarity and simplicity of your articles

  13. Mike Yamawo

    May 13, 2020 at 6:40 am

    Lovely, how do I get started.

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Debt Securities

UPDC moves to redeem N4.355 billion bonds

UPDC is set to redeem its N4,355 billion Series 1 Bonds on the 26th of April, 2021.

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UACN Property Development Company Plc (UPDC) is set to redeem its N4,355 billion Series 1 Bonds on the 26th of April, 2021.

This information was contained in a notice tagged “Notice to the Bondholders of UACN Property Development Plc”, issued by the Company Secretary, Folake Kalaro.

According to the information contained in the notice, UPDC, under Condition 3.2 of the Terms and Conditions of the Bonds, will redeem the N4,355,000,000 Series 1 Bonds on the 26th of April, 2021 from the bondholders, together with the accrued Coupon (the annual interest rate paid on the bond) up to, but excluding the Redemption Date.

The company revealed that the Coupon on the Bonds will cease to accrue on and after the Redemption Date.

What you should know

  • On the Bond’s Redemption Date, it is important to note that the Registrar of the Bonds, Africa Prudential Plc, shall pay to each Bondholder’s designated account, the amount payable to him/her in respect of the Redemption.
  • The Redemption payment to the Bondholders shall be equal to 100% of the principal amount together with all accrued and unpaid Coupon. Following the Redemption, the listing of the Bonds on the FMDQ Securities Exchange Limited will be canceled.
  • It is essential to understand that the N4.355 billion Series 1 Senior Guaranteed Fixed Rate Bond Due 2023 under UPDC’s N20 billion Bond Issuance Programme, was listed in 2018 following the approval of the SEC.
  • The move to issue the N4.355 billion bonds was made following an unsuccessful attempt to raise N5.16 billion via a rights issue, which recorded subscription for 879.65 million ordinary shares valued at N2.64 billion.

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Debt Securities

Ecobank Nigeria secures N50 billion 10-Year subordinated loan

Ecobank Nigeria has secured a N50 billion, 10-year bilateral subordinated loan.

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Ecobank Nigeria

Ecobank Nigeria, a subsidiary of Ecobank Transnational Incorporated (‘’ETI’’) has announced that it has secured a N50 billion, 10-year bilateral subordinated loan.

This is according to a disclosure signed by the Group Head, Adenike Laoye and sent to the Nigerian Stock Exchange, as seen by Nairametrics.

The bilateral funding will enable the bank to maintain stable liquidity and improve its balance sheet, especially the capital adequacy ratio by an estimated circa 300 basis points.

What they are saying

The disclosure from the bank read thus:

“Ecobank Transnational Incorporated (“ETI”), the parent of the Ecobank Group, announces that one of its significant subsidiaries, Ecobank Nigeria, secured N50 billion, 10-Year bilateral subordinated loan.

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“The bilateral funding provides stable medium-term liquidity to the balance sheet of Ecobank Nigeria and positively improved its balance sheet ratios, especially the capital adequacy ratio by circa 300 basis points. The transaction proceeds would be deployed to support Micro, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (“MSMEs”) and Small Corporates.”

What you should know

Ecobank Transnational Inc. had earlier recorded 11% rise in its interest income to N139.6 billion for Q3 2020, as captured by Nairametrics.

  • Subordinated loans have lower priority than other debt instruments in case of liquidation. They are only repayable after other debts have been paid.
  • This debt can either be secured or unsecured and it typically has a lower credit rating and higher yield than other senior debt.

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Companies

Flour Mills moves to diversify funding sources with N29.8 billion bond listing

Flour Mills Nigeria Plc lists N29.8 billion bonds to diversify funding sources from the Nigerian capital market.

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Flour Mills makes one of the largest contributions to COVID-19 relief fund

Flour Mills Nigeria Plc’s fresh N29.8 bond listing will help the nation’s leading food business company to explore diversified funding sources from the Nigerian capital market, with the hope of enhancing growth and the development of the company.

This statement was made by the Group Managing Director of FMN, Mr. Omoboyede Olusanya, at the listing of the Tranche A and Tranche B bonds valued at N29.8 billion on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE).

The food and the agro-allied company which has remained Nigeria’s largest and oldest integrated agro-allied business with a broad profile and robust Pan-Africa distribution issued these bonds under its N70 billion Bond Issuance Programme.

Olusanya said that the company would continue to explore funding opportunities inherent in the capital market to ensure business growth and continuity.

While speaking about the Credit Rating of the Programme, he disclosed that FMN’s credit rating, as well as the operational financing of the Group, have improved considerably.

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According to him, the bonds floated by Flour Mill will help to strengthen the company’s capital base and provide the needed working capital required by the Company. He added that Flour Mills Group will continue to deleverage and replace short term financing with longer-tenured and lower price funding to optimize capital structure and reduce financing cost.

He noted that Flour Mills will continue to explore opportunities to raise fundings via the capital market as this enables the company to diversify its funding sources and continue to play a role in the capital market as a significant player in it.

What they are saying

The Group Managing Director of FMN, Mr. Omoboyede Olusanya, at the virtual event, said;

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  • “We are delighted with the response from the market, we are happy to be listed.
  • “We are introducing an N29.9 billion listing under an N70 billion bond issuance cover; we will continue to raise funding to diversify our funding sources.
  • “The company remains passionate about feeding the nation to improve the quality of living for Nigerians through increased production and investments in backward integration.”

What you should know

  • With the successful issuance of the new N29.8bn Tranche A and Bonds, FMN has utilized its bond issuance program registered in 2018.
  • It is important to note that the Senior Unsecured bond listing includes an N4.89bn under Series 4 Tranche A of the bond issuance programme, at a 5.5% rate for 5 years, due by 2025, and a 25bn under Series 4 Tranche B of the same program at a 6.25% rate for a tenure of 7 years, due by 2027.
  • The bond proceeds will be used to refinance existing debt obligations. It will also help the company take collaborative actions to diversify the company’s financing options beyond expensive short term debt.

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