Deciding what stock to buy can be a challenge especially in a bullish market. Bullish markets are characterized by higher returns on the average for equities as well as increased liquidity in the market. This can sometimes result in overpaying for a stock or underpaying depending on which way the pendulum swings.
Luckily, there was snap analysis you can do with the help of a calculator to determine whether a stock is expensive or cheap. Of course, a stock being expensive or cheap is relative to the buyer or seller as other factors are involved but these tried and tested methods are perhaps the most widely used out there.
Price Earnings Multiple
Definition – This is probably this most used financial terminology in the stock market and one of our favorites. It is simply the share price of a stock divided by its earnings per share.
Market use – The P/E Multiple for short indicates just how much more investors are willing to pay in multiples of the current earnings per share of a company. For example, if you own a business that is just earned you a profit of N1million and you place a P/E multiple of 10x to it, you are basically telling a potential buyer that your company is worth N10 million. The buyer can look at your offer and decide 15x is either too much or too small.
Why it matters – Price Earnings Multiple is a snap way of valuing a company and is mostly reflective of market sentiments. During the downturn of 2015-16, price-earnings multiples for most stocks in Nigeria were as low as 4x. As an investor, you should look at the P/E multiple of a stock and compare it to others within its sector to determine if it is hugely overpriced or severely underpriced.
A misconception – Some people believe that a low P/E ratio means a stock is cheap or that a high one is expensive. Sometimes it is but only if you compare it to something. You can either compare it to the P/E of its peers or to the market or to its growth rate. If you always remember that P/E ratios are reflective of market sentiments at any point in time, then you avoid falling into this trap.
Price to book ratio
Definition – This is the ratio of the share price of a company to its average net asset per share.
Market use – Another common term but often viewed with less importance than the price-earnings ratio. The price to book ratio helps a discerning investor determine just how high or low the market prices the stock of a company relative to its total shareholder funds or net assets.
Why it matters – A higher price to book ratio is sometimes assumed as being expensive. This is because the market is suggesting that it values a stock much more than what its value is on paper. Not a bad assumption but it can be misleading. That you own a car and a house does not mean I will buy them at the value you bought them the first time. However, it could matter if the house is worth more in the market than how much you originally paid for it.
Price Earnings Growth
Definition– This is the price-earnings ratio of a stock divided by its earnings growth. It is one of my favourite metrics.
Market Use – The PEG ratio as it is widely called is built to address the issues inherent in using price earnings ratio only. If a stock is priced at 10x its earnings and it is growing its earnings at 5% historically then the PEG ratio is 2x. By adjusting for the earnings growth, you can determine if the market is oveboard with its valuation or assigning multiples for factors other than the fundamentals of the company.
Why it matters – Most investors believe PEG ratios of equal to or less than 1 suggest the stock is cheap. So, if a stock has a price-earnings multiple of 30x and the latest earnings per share show an earnings growth of 40%, then it means the earnings are growing at a faster rate than the multiples the market placed on it.
The data you use for computing these figures can be found on the Nigerian Stock Exchange.
Why your parents are wrong about money
Financial advice given by your parents may today no longer be workable since the world and activities have since evolved.
The desires, perceptions, and mindsets of people often change as the world evolves. In finance, this also plays out; certain financial concepts that had been successful in the past do not have a place in the financial scope of today. As a millennial, you are faced with technological innovation that has affected every area of life, including finance. Due to this, a few financial resources have opened up, while the economic environment has also shifted.
This means that, in this present financial climate, ideas that worked some time ago may have become outdated and ineffective. Many individuals develop certain values and mindsets that impact their financial lives when it comes to money. Because of the financial experience they have, the exposure or guidance they get about money from their parents, these values are created.
Many parents strive to incorporate skills and abilities into various areas of their children’s lives. Most of them, particularly advise their children in the area of finance, on how to make money and live comfortably, while others rarely address money problems with their children. The advice or guidance provided by parents on money is focused on what worked for them, which may be incorrect or misleading based on the evolution since their time. Your economic growth cannot be assured by the notions your parents hold about finance. It is therefore important to recognize and replace these convictions with well-informed and timely decisions.
Some of the misguided ideas parents have about money include:
It is not important to discuss money
Many parents rarely have conversations with their children about money or household needs and how they are met. They believe that it is not necessary to relate their income, expenses, and financial goals to their children. This leaves the children with little or no knowledge of how to prepare, handle, and use their money.
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Having a degree signifies having a career
Quite a number of parents pressure their children to go to school on the grounds that this alone ensures their prosperity and financial success. Although it is valuable and laudable to obtain a college degree, it does not inherently guarantee financial stability for everyone. A college degree can offer a few financial advantages, but it should be seen as an opportunity to obtain profitable knowledge and experience, not as a key to a job. The chances of securing a comfortable and attractive career are getting slimmer with the growing number of college graduates. Accumulating sound knowledge of economic and financial management is therefore important.
Stick to a job and save up
The idea of making money for most parents is to secure a job that makes ends meet. They typically do not welcome or mention the concept of harnessing a diversified income strategy, as this is a sign of inconsistency for them. This attitude restricts the children from seeking jobs only to gain enough for survival without investigating the financial resources that are made available to achieve their financial goals.
Investment is risky, avoid it.
Most parents, for fear of losing money, will caution their children against investing in financial schemes or institutions. Here is the deal, investment is risky. An assessment of the feasibility of the investment program and the potential of a return is therefore required to be carried out by people before investing.
To gain financial stability you have to learn how to financially analyze your position and handle your money appropriately. This cannot be achieved by adhering to your parent’s loving but misleading financial tips or ideas. It can take a while to unlearn these values, but it is important to make your own decisions about your finances, as this will help you to remain responsible and accountable for your money.
How to improve your investing habit
Valuable tips to help you improve your investing habit and make more money.
The best route to financial freedom and wealth is by saving and investing your funds. With the rising inflation rate in the country, money saved in the bank is useless and would depreciate with time. The best thing to do as a smart person is to invest your money and sleep while your money works for you. Investment entails more than just knowing about the stock market and investing, it involves having a healthy investing habit. It takes a lot of study and growth to imbibe these habits. Keep reading for tips on how to improve your investing habit and make more money.
Keep at it
A good investor doesn’t start today and stop tomorrow. You have to be consistent with your investment plan and learn not to eat all your returns. Reinvest your interest and keep investing till your last breath, that is how you make more money. When Albert Einstein was asked what man’s greatest invention was, he said ‘compound interest’. According to him, “compound interest is the eighth wonder of the world, he who understands it, earns it; he who doesn’t pay it.” Imbibe the art of reinvesting today and keep at it.
Have a plan
‘A goal without a plan is a wish.’ Having defined your financial goals, you should come up with a plan on how to achieve your goals. Gone are the days when you just invest blindly. To improve your investing habits, learn to plan ahead. Decide what to invest in, look out for the risks involved in your investment, calculate your interest rates and see if it would benefit you, and track your investment.
Spend more time on research
“It has long been the prevalent view that the art of successful investment lies first in the choice of those industries that are most likely to grow in the future and then in identifying the most promising companies in these industries”
An excerpt from the book, “The Intelligent Investor; The Definitive Book on Value Investing” by Benjamin Graham, updated by Jason Zweig.
The importance of research cannot be overemphasized. As a smart investor, you should do thorough research on the industries that have great potential and would give you better results. You should also do in-depth research on the risks involved in investing in specific industries. Arm yourself with enough data before investing.
Learn from your mistakes
There is no successful investor that has not made a financial mistake or lost money due to some sloppiness. However, what makes you a better investor is the ability to learn from your mistakes and move on. This rule applies to all facet of life so it shouldn’t be new to you. If you make an error in your numbers or make some huge mistakes, pick yourself up and try again.
Wait on it
You can not be an investor and not know how to be patient, disciplined and eager to learn. One of the habits of successful investors is patience. You have to learn how to let go of your funds and let it come back to you when it is ready. Also, the market won’t always be proposing huge returns or favourable investment plans; your patience will go a long way in helping you survive situations like this.
Be a copycat but also think for yourself
Do research on successful investors, find the ones that have the philosophy that aligns with you and follow their steps. You cannot know it all. You should also learn from their mistakes along the line; that is the key to becoming better than them. You must also be able to harness your emotions and think for yourself as an investor. Don’t underestimate the power of your intuition.
In addition to the tips listed above, below is the Buffet approach to investment, extracted from “The Warren Buffet Way: Investment Strategies of the World’s Greatest Investors” by Robert G. Hagstrom.
Explore the Nairametrics Research Website for Economic and Financial Data
- Never follow the day to day fluctuations of the stock market.
- Don’t try and analyze or worry about the general economy.
- Buy a business, not its stock.
- Manage a portfolio of businesses: Intelligent investing means having the priorities of a business owner (focused on long-term value) rather than a stock trader (focused on short-term gains and losses).
We wish you well on your investing journey.
6 things you must not do with your money
Money can go as fast as it comes, but you might just get to keep it for a long time if you follow these tips.
Coming across this, you probably thought to yourself “what an interesting topic, I wonder what it has to say”. Well, we are right there with you. There are a lot of things you shouldn’t do with your money and even without reading further, you can probably outline about 20 things, (go ahead if you’d like to).
Trust me you’d have fun doing that because it was quite fun coming up with this list and we’d like to present to you the top 6 things we believe you must not do with your money. Have a fun read.
DO NOT BE UNINTENTIONAL WITH YOUR MONEY
Intentional living is important and it is something that has caught on over the years. To be intentional means to be deliberate in your actions and decisions. Basically, what you must understand from this is that you should not be impulsive with your money, whether in your spending, savings, and investment decisions, you must be deliberate. There is a popular saying that goes “failure to plan is planning to fail”.
It is necessary to always have a plan/budget for your money. Never leave your money to chance. Be intentional, be deliberate, and do not be passive with your money plans. To get started, you can focus on three steps; have a vision, create a plan, set limits. You can decide to be intentional with your impulse buying as well. When you create a plan and set limits and you do not go over that limit, even when you decide to splurge, you would still be on track to achieving your goals.
DO NOT MAKE LARGE PURCHASES WITHOUT CONSIDERING THE FULL COST
Part of being intentional with your money is to avoid large purchases if possible. Things like buying a car or land/homeownership should not be taken lightly. Even if you can afford the down-payment at that time, you have to consider the other charges and fees attached. If you can meet up with maintenance and servicing then, by all means, go ahead. Otherwise, it’d be best to review that decision. One way to achieve such purchase though, if your current earnings aren’t sufficient to support an extravagant purchase is to have a savings or budget plan for it.
Even if you cannot afford a financial advisor, there is a good number of mobile apps that would help you make such a savings plan. If you are the type of person that whenever you come upon ‘windfall’ or unexpected income, you’re already thinking of how to spend it extravagantly, you need to have a change of perspective. Before you think of buying that private jet or getting that car, you need to ask yourself if you are fully capable of maintaining it. Making rash purchase decisions can lead to regrets later.
DO NOT CASH YOUR PAYCHECK RIGHT AWAY
With the advancement in technology, most employees have the option to have their earnings paid directly into their bank accounts, rather than collecting cheques or cash. But no matter the form you collect your money; you must make provision for part of that money to be saved. Do not spend it immediately. You can automate payments such that a percentage of your monthly income goes directly into your savings account.
This helps to avoid the temptation of dipping into that fund because, “if you don’t see it, you won’t spend it”. Some companies provide retirement savings plans for their employees, a system whereby a portion of their salaries are deducted and paid directly into their retirement account. One such plan is the 401k, of which the Nigerian alternative is the Nigerian Pension Scheme, governed by the National Pension Committee (PENCOM).
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DO NOT PUT ALL YOUR MONEY IN ILLIQUID INVESTMENTS
While investments are fun, and a good way to build wealth, it is important to diversify and have variety. Remember the saying, “do not put all your eggs in one basket?”. The difference between liquid and illiquid investments is simply this; the ability to exchange something for cash. So the rate of liquidity is determined by how easily an investment can be converted to cash. Do not tie up your money by investing in illiquid investments. Your investment portfolio should be diversified.
DO NOT SHOP EMOTIONALLY
The fact that we are biological beings does not mean we should not make logical decisions. Do not fall prey to ‘retail therapy’. Retail therapy is a term that is used to describe the action of shopping to improve one’s mood. It is also referred to as “comfort buys”, often acquainted with individuals who buy during periods of depression and stress. You are allowed to get emotional and you are also allowed to deal with that emotion, but talking to a sales representative or clerk just to make you feel better is not healthy.
Their job is to make sales, not your welfare. This is not intended to paint anyone in any sort of way but rather, to educate you. Instead of making that trip to the store or browsing that online catalogue, it would be better for you to call up a trusted friend or family member and talk with them. You’ll thank me for it.
DO NOT SIGN A CONTRACT YOU DO NOT FULLY UNDERSTAND
A contract is an agreement between two people that is legally binding. Four essential elements that make a document legally binding are; an offer, an acceptance, an intention to form a partnership, and a consideration that usually involves money. It can be oral or written. When it is oral unless recorded, there is no solid proof that an agreement was made, but, once it is written there is enough proof.
So before you go ahead and sign that piece of document, you must be fully aware of the terms and conditions of your agreement. Yes, a contract may, however, be considered invalid for specific reasons, but the bottom line is that you should avoid any situation that would put you in any money problem. It is more rewarding to get professional advice than implicate yourself unknowingly.
With all that’s been said, the crux of the matter is that you must be intentional with your money. Only then, can you plan, only then can you learn from your mistake, only then can you track your money movements, be deliberate, make decisions and take actions with a purpose. Develop a relationship with it (a healthy one of course), get to know your money, go on money dates and your financial health will bless you for it.