In fixed income markets, traders think of bonds in terms of clean and dirty prices, and this is how bond prices are quoted.
Clean Price of a Bond is the present value of the bond’s future cashflows minus the interest earned on the bond between the last payment date and the transaction date.
It is also simply defined as the price of a bond not including any accrued interest.
Clean Price = Dirty Price – Accrued Interest.
The Dirty Price is a bond pricing quote referring to the price of a coupon bond that includes the present value of all future cashflows, including interest accruing on the next coupon payment.
Accrued Interest is earned when a coupon bond is currently in between coupon payment dates. As the next coupon payment date approaches, the accrued interest increases until the coupon is paid. Immediately following the coupon payment, the clean price and dirty price will be equal.
Read Also [4 Secrets of people who have made it in life]
Other Differences between Clean Prices and Dirty Prices
Clean prices are more stable over time than dirty prices, as they aren’t affected by semi-annual rise and fall of interest accruing and being paid, as are dirty prices.
Clean prices can however be affected by economic factors such as changes in interest rates or changes in the issuer’s credit quality.
However, note that when a bond is bought and sold in the secondary market, it is the dirty price that is paid. That is the bond’s market value – so bonds are quoted as clean prices but transact as dirty prices.
What to consider as you budget for college
Managing the college budget squeeze is very important, and this article contains information that would help you do it.
College has become a non-negotiable level of education for this generation. Although it is possible to make a career without a college degree, however, those with a college degree have the edge over those who don’t. In most cases, a college degree is required for some top positions. Going to college is fun; who wouldn’t love to? But the fees are not affordable for many. Managing the college budget squeeze is very important, and this article contains information that would help you do it.
The fact is that college is expensive, and it keeps getting more expensive due to inadequate funding and economic situations. So many colleges or universities are already out of the reach of the common man. This is why you need to have a plan to go through, get your finances right from day one, and it would be easier for you than those who nosedived ignorantly.
Why should I budget for college?
It is generally known that the person who counts his costs before embarking on an expense is wise. You and your finance provider must answer important questions like: how much would it cost? Can we afford it? What’s our income compared to the expected expenditure? It is these questions that play a significant role in choosing a blend of the best and most affordable institution for you.
Although there are many reasons why people drop out of college, a majority is down to financial collapse. It can be more accurately captured as poor budgeting because it might not have led to dropping out if they thought the process through. However, there remain some exceptions.
What are the important factors to consider in choosing a college?
There are numerous factors to be considered when choosing a college. However, we have narrowed the list to the most important ones. They are:
- The academic courses or majors available: The college you eventually settle for must have your course of study. This is pretty straight forward and non-negotiable. It would help if you chose from the available colleges with your course of study, and not let the college select your course. This is a very vital stage of your life, and should not be joked with.
- Affordability: After your course, this is the most crucial factor to consider. There are even instances where the importance of affordability supersedes individual preferences regarding the choice of study. If you cannot afford it or get a scholarship to pay for it, do not go for it. Most times, it leads to dropping out after piling up debts.
- Quality of education and campus facilities: For colleges, always go for the best that your money can afford. The quality of education of the college is paramount, and should not be looked over. It could give you an edge over individuals from colleges with lower standards.
- Location: Proximity from your home is also a factor to consider. How far is it? Do I always have to travel? And if yes, for how long? Schooling around your home is more convenient and less financially demanding because you can cut certain costs. These include campus rents, transportation, feeding, and more.
How do I budget for college?
After choosing the right and most affordable college for you, here are some of the ways you can cut on some more expenses:
- Draw up your budget: Although this might sound generic, it is probably the most critical part of saving while in college. Always have a budget that is very realistic and guides you. Do this by creating a list of all your expenses on things that you would need in school. It would drive your spending and ensure that it is intentional and not a reckless spree.
- Cut out unnecessary expenses: The things that consume money the most are those which we do not need. Every single penny is important, and you have to cut down on the things that you do not need. Doing this could be difficult for students because of the number of attractions in college; however, you should learn to stay focused.
- Differentiate your needs from wants: This is actually what helps you in cutting down unnecessary expenses. Knowing what you need and what you want gives a sense of direction and makes you more aware of your spending.
- Always save: We know that the money is never enough, and there is an urge to fulfil that fetish desire at every moment. However, it is not a good reason not to save. Always ensure you save up some of your income for the rainy days. These days always come at one point or the other.
Going through college without enough fund requires the right amount of will and discipline. Many have done it before and would still do it. You are not the only one born without a silver spoon, but this doesn’t stop you from receiving a proper education. Stay committed, and in no time, your college days would be over.
How to make more money solving problems
If you want to become more financially successful, you must figure out how to solve problems for other people.
One of the reasons anyone in the world who is not your father, mother, or siblings will give you money is this; your ability to solve a problem that is important to them.
That is how all the wealth in the world is created. The Rich Make Money by solving problems for other people. They solve problems in exchange for money. And if you want to become more financially successful this is what you must do regardless of where you are or who you are.
But before I show you how to make more money by solving financial problems, let me first tell you what it means to solve a problem satisfactorily. You solve a problem when you remove pain, obstacles, or challenges from people’s lives. And when you help them reach their desired end or destination.
So there must be two elements in every problem-solving equation. The First is the pain a person is trying to escape from, navigate, or change. And the Second is the pleasure a person is trying to gain or achieve. So now that you know what solving a problem means what are the kinds of problems to solve if you want to be wealthy?
The Kinds of Problems to solve if you want to be Rich
There are many kinds of problems you can solve in the world but since you want to make more money let’s focus on the type of problem that can give you the most money. There is only one problem in the world that carries the most potential for wealth. This problem is the Financial Problem.
Financial problems carry the most potential for wealth because they are universal in nature, everyone has them, and they cut across different countries, tribes, and nations. So if you want to make more money fast in your life focus on solving financial problems. To solve financial problems there are four people you must focus on.
The Four People to Focus on if you want to make more money.
The first is you. The second is other people. The third is Businesses and the fourth is the Government. When you solve your own financial problems you do not make much money because money only comes from helping other people. But the benefit of solving your own financial problem is this. It gives you the knowledge, skill, and experience you need to help other people.
When you gain this experience you become a valuable resource to other people. So make sure never to waste any financial mistakes or decisions you have made in the past. Reflect on them to know what worked, what didn’t work, and what you would do next time. This is critical for refining your problem-solving skills and for helping other people.
If you want to make the most money in the world you must focus on helping other people solve their problems. Part of the other people you must help is business owners. Business owners like individuals have financial problems and they are looking for people to help them grow their business revenue.
The beautiful thing about helping a successful business owner is that they are the richest people in the world and have the most capacity to pay you. But to succeed with business owners you must solve problems that are dear to their heart. This, keeping their businesses alive through the constant flow of cash is one of the most important things in the world to them.
The last set of people you should strive to help if you can is the government. The government also needs financial help like individuals and businesses. But their kind of help requires a certain level of expertise and global application to reap a high reward. The more difficult the problems you solve the higher your chances of reaping a high reward. And the more financially related the problem is, the higher income you will earn.
So now that you know the kinds of problems you should solve and who to focus on to earn the most money. Let’s now see some of the factors that determine how much you earn when you solve a problem?
Factors that determine financial success when you solve a problem
There are three factors that will determine how much money you earn when you solve a problem.
The first factor is the type of problem you solve. The second factor is the Number of people you solve this problem for and the Third factor is the financial capacity of the person paying you. Let me explain these three points in more detail.
First the kind of problem you solve. Not all problems are created equal. Certain problems command high income while others command low income. A small or big problem is determined by two factors. First is the level of importance a person places on that problem and second is how that problem is related to making money, saving money, or saving time.
Problems that are pain-related, connected to making money or saving money, and also urgent in nature will command more money than problems that are preventive, future-oriented, or pleasure-seeking in nature. This is because most people are short-term in their thinking and will be open to help when they feel the heat. So focus on urgent problems that have a clear relationship with making money, saving money, or saving time for an individual, business, or Government.
Second is the number of people you solve a problem for. Solving a problem for just one person is the fastest way to end up in financial struggles. One of anything limits your opportunities and this is why employees struggle financially. They can only serve one employer at a time. The key rule for making more money is this. Find ways to solve a problem for more than one person.
If you solve a problem for one person you get paid by one person and the amount you get paid is dependent on how close your value is to the bottom line. If you solve a problem for some people you get paid more money from a few people. And if you solve a problem for a lot of people you get paid a lot of money by a lot of people. The ability to help a lot of people at the same time is the advantage that business owners have over employees. So if you want to earn more money you must find ways to help a lot of people.
The third factor is who pays you. Who pays you determines to a great extent how much you earn. This is because people can only pay you according to their financial capacity. For example, when you solve a problem for a peer you get paid income at a peer level no matter the amount of value you provide. But when you solve a problem for a business owner you get paid at a business owner level depending on the success of the business owner.
Business owners are the richest people in the world and they have the highest capacity to pay you. All you need to do is ensure you solve a problem for more than one business owner at a time. And the only way to do this is to help a few business owners generate more revenue through sales.
So now that you know the factors that can determine how rich you can get let’s look at the fastest way to make more money through problem-solving.
The Fastest way to make more money through Problem-Solving.
The fastest way to make more money through problem-solving is to do two things. The first is to choose to focus on financial problems, which is the most critical pain for many people. And the second is to focus on helping business owners who are the people with the most capacity to pay you for solving their problems.
Business Owners spend a tones of money advertising and marketing their products. They are tired of the high marketing cost that produces a low financial reward. Most business owners are willing to share a part of their profit with you if you will help them sell their products through word of mouth and referrals.
And many of them pay up to a 6-figure commission on such sales. If you can help them connect to a new buyer, you can earn a juicy financial reward for it. Thankfully, everyone can help at least one or two people connect with products or services that can help them. The goal here is to only recommend products and services that you are passionate about.
Preferably Products and Services that you trust, have tried, and or tested. This is important because you do not want to jeopardize your important relationships on the grounds of making money. You must truly want to help people and not just sell products to make money. When you do this correctly there is no limit to how much money you can earn.
The Skills You Need to Solve Financial Problems
To successfully solve the revenue problems of business owners and help other people you need three skills.
The first skill is creative skills. You need the ability to come up with creative ideas that will help you sell a product.
Second, you need networking skills. Remember the only way to make money is by helping other people so you need many more people in your network who like you and trust you. This means that you must be a leader and an influencer within your circle. And be able to serve as the connecting bridge between the people who need help and the companies that can help them.
Third, you need sales and marketing skills. That is the ability to educate, convince, inspire, or influence people that a product or service can help them solve their problems. Developing these three skills is the fastest way to make more money in your life and without the added stress of additional workload.
So If you are looking to make more money in your life and want to become a high-demand problem solver reaping 6-7 figure financial rewards we can help you. To learn more send an email to [email protected]
Your financial success is hidden in the problems you can solve for other people.
Grace Agada is The Senior Financial Happiness Director @ Create Solid Wealth. She is an Author, and Column Contributor in Six National Newspaper. She is a contributor at BellaNaija, Nairametrics and Proshare and she is on a mission to help working-class professionals and CEOs become more financially successful. To learn more about Grace and how she can help you send an email to [email protected]
432,000 business applied for FG payroll support, 70,000 shortlisted
70,000 Nigerian businesses have been shortlisted for the Payroll Support of FG’s Survival Fund Grant Scheme.
70,000 businesses in Nigeria have been shortlisted from the 432,000 businesses that applied for the Payroll Support of the Federal Government’s Survival Fund Grant Scheme. Many states did not meet their quota and plans are ongoing to seek an extension after the portal closed 5 days ago.
Mr. Tola Johnson, the Project Coordinator of PDO and Special Assistant to the President on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs), confirmed this to the DailyTrust.
Nairametrics had earlier reported plans by the FGN to roll out a N2.3 trillion stimulus package and survival fund for Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) to stay afloat amid the economic challenges imposed by the pandemic.
The survival fund includes payroll support for three months and a guaranteed off-take scheme among others, all under the National Economic Sustainability Plan (NESP).
What they are saying
Commenting on the latest development, Mr. Johnson said, “As at the day the portal closed to applicants for Payroll Support Scheme, we had 432,000 businesses that applied. However, we have shortlisted 70,000 that met the requirements. These businesses have uploaded over 400,000 staff for us to pay for three months.’’
Mr. Johnson pleaded for an extension, noting that though the portal closed on the 15th of October, 2020, many states did not meet their quota
“The Project Delivery Office, which I head, is taking this plea for an extension to the Steering Committee headed by the Minister of State for Industry, Trade and Investment, Ambassador Mariam Katagum.
“To know whether to extend the date for online application into the payroll support scheme will be based on the data available to us.’’
He concluded by emphasizing the need for BVN and digitalizing the process, noting that business owners will not be paid directly. Only their staff will be paid subject to the provision of BVN.
Why it matters
The support is a kind gesture by the FG, aimed at alleviating the impact of the pandemic on MSMEs. It is a way of averting massive job loss, creating income for the staff, and stimulating the economy, as the impact of MSMEs in developing the economy can not be overemphasized.