Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew by 2.55% in real terms in the fourth quarter (Q4) of 2019, up from 2.38% growth recorded in the fourth quarter of 2018. This means there was a 0.17% point increase in the growth of the Nigerian economy (year-on-year).
According to the data released by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), the growth recorded in Q4 2019 represents the highest quarterly growth performance since the 2016 recession.
Meanwhile, the Nigerian economy in 2019 grew by 2.27% in real terms, standing at N19.53 trillion compared to N19.28 trillion recorded in the corresponding quarter of 2018.
The real growth of the oil sector in Q4 2019 was 6.36% (year-on-year), indicating an increase of 7.98% points compared to the negative growth of 1.62% recorded in the corresponding quarter of 2018.
- The report showed that the non-oil sector grew by 2.26% in real terms in the fourth quarter. 0.44% points lower than the rate recorded in the corresponding quarter of 2018 but 0.42% point higher than the Q3 growth rate.
- The Nigerian economy grew by 2.27% annually compared to 1.91% in 2018 with a quarter on quarter growth of 5.59%.
The Oil Sector
Oil sector GDP grew by 6.36% in Q4 2019, 0.13% point decrease compared to 6.49% recorded in Q3 2019 and 7.98% points increase compared to -1.62% in Q4 2018.
- In terms of contribution, the oil sector contributed 7.32% to the total real GDP in Q4 2019, up from 7.06% recorded in the corresponding quarter.
- Meanwhile, the sector’s contribution to GDP went down when compared to 9.77% recorded in the third quarter of 2019.
- It should be noted that in the fourth quarter of 2019, the average daily oil production was 2.00 million barrels per day (mbpd) which was 0.09mbpd increase compared to the daily average production of 1.91mbpd recorded in the corresponding quarter of 2018.
- However, it was 0.04mbpd lower than the production volume of 2.04mbpd recorded in the third quarter of 2019.
The Non-Oil Sector
In real terms, the non-oil sector grew by 2.26% in the fourth quarter of 2019, which was 0.44% points lower than the rate recorded in the same quarter of 2018 but 0.42% point higher than the third quarter of 2019.
- This sector during the fourth quarter of 2019, was driven mainly by Information and Communication (Telecommunications), Agriculture (Crop Production), Financial and Insurance Services (Financial Institutions), and Manufacturing.
- In real terms, the Non-Oil sector contributed 92.68% to the nation’s GDP in the fourth quarter of 2019, lower from shares recorded in the fourth quarter of 2018 (92.94%) but higher than the third quarter of 2019 (90.23%).
- The annual contribution of the non-Oil sector stood at 91.22% in 2019, 0.19% point reduction compared to 91.41% recorded in 2018.
Key sectors’ performance
The agricultural sector in real terms grew by 2.31% (year-on-year) in Q4 2019, a decrease of 0.14% points from the corresponding quarter of 2018 but an increase of 0.03% points from the preceding quarter.
In terms of contribution, the sector accounted for 26.09% of real GDP in Q4 2019, a marginal reduction of 0.06% point compared to Q4 2018 and 3.16% points decline compared to 29.25% recorded in the preceding quarter.
Majorly, four sub-activities make up the Agricultural sector: Crop production, Livestock, Forestry, and Fishing.
The manufacturing sector in the fourth quarter of 2019 was 1.24% (year-on-year) in real terms, lower than Q4 2018 but higher than the preceding quarter by 1.11% points and 0.14% points respectively.
Contribution of the manufacturing sector to real GDP in Q4 2019 was 8.74%, 0.12% point lower than the 8.86% recorded in the fourth quarter of 2018 but maintained a steady 8.74% contribution as recorded in Q3 2019.
The full-year 2019 real contribution of the manufacturing sector was 9.06% against 9.2% recorded in 2018.
The service sector grew by 2.6% in Q4 2019, higher than 1.87% recorded in Q3 2019 and 0.3% point lower than 2.9% recorded in Q4 2018. The sector’s contribution to real GDP increased from 48.59% recorded in Q3 2019 to 53.64% in Q4 2019.
The key takeaways
GDP is Nigeria’s biggest economic data and it measures the monetary value of everything produced in the country. It depicts the nation’s total economic activity. A decline in GDP means major economic activities are slow or sluggish, which may be a result of several factors.
- The latest GDP figures show that the Nigerian economy grew quarterly by 2.55%, being the highest post-recession growth while the annual growth was 2.27%.
- The agricultural sector, which was expected to grow due to the continued land border closure and increased agricultural practices in the country, grew only marginally by 2.31% compared to 2.28% recorded in its preceding quarter and a decline compared to 2.46% recorded in its corresponding quarter of 2018.
- In general, the agricultural sector grew by 2.36% annually in 2019 compared to 2.12% in 2018.
FAAC disburses N696.2 billion in July 2020, as Lagos State parts with N1.46 billion
The sum of N696.18 billion to the Federal, State, and Local governments in July 2020 from the FAAC account.
The Federation Account Allocation Committee (FAAC), disbursed the sum of N696.18 billion to the Federal, State, and Local governments in July 2020, from the revenue generated in the month of June 2020. This was stated in the latest FAAC report, released by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS).
According to the report, the monthly disbursement increased by 27.2% compared to N547.3 billion shared in June, and 14.8% increase compared to N606.2 billion disbursed in May 2020.
Checks by Nairametrics research, shows that a total of N4.58 trillion has been shared to the three tiers of government, between January and July 2020. Highest disbursement was recorded in April (N780.9 billion), followed by N716.3 billion in January 2020.
Meanwhile, Lagos State – the economic hub of Nigeria, parted with N1.46 billion as external debt deductions in the month, indicating a total of N9.74 billion deductions between January and July 2020.
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- The amount disbursed in July comprised of N474.53 billion from the Statutory Account, N128.83 billion from Valued Added Tax (VAT), N42.83 billion from Exchange Gain Differences, and Distribution of N50 billion from Non-Oil Revenue for the Month.
- Federal Government received a total of N266.13 billion from the total disbursement. States received a total of N185.77 billion, and Local Governments received N138.97 billion.
- The sum of N28.50 billion was shared among the oil producing states as 13% derivation fund.
- Revenue generating agencies such as Nigeria Customs Service (NCS), Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), and Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) received N6.32 billion, N15.05 billion, and N2.68 billion respectively as cost of revenue collections.
South-South scoops highest share
The South-South region, also known as the Niger Delta region, received the highest share of the disbursement in the month of July. The region received a sum of N49.44 billion, representing 25.4% of the total net allocation for states.
This is largely because the region contributes mostly to crude oil production in Nigeria, which is a significant source of revenue for the federation. Out of the six states in the region, only Cross River State is not an oil producing state. Hence, Rivers, Edo, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, and Delta States received a total of N24.28 billion as part of 13% oil derivation fund.
North-West region received N36.83 billion (18.9%); followed by North-Central region, which received a net total of N30.69 billion (15.8%). Others include South-West (N29.55 billion), North-East (N26.32 billion), and South-East (N21.97 billion).
External debt deductions
A total of N4.47 billion was deducted from the state’s allocation, as external debt deductions for the month of July. Lagos State parted with the highest amount of N1.46 billion, representing 32.6% of the total debt deductions in the month. A sum of N9.74 billion has been deducted as a result of external debt obligations between January and July 2020.
It is worth noting that, the State’s external debt has declined by 9.67%, from $1.39 billion recorded as at the end of December 2019 to $1.26 billion in June 2020.
Others on the list of top 5 deductions are, Kaduna (N414.6 million), Oyo (N305.4 million), Rivers (N280.3 million), and Cross River (N222 million). On the flip side, Ogun State parted with the lowest, as N9.1 million was deducted, followed by Borno (N21.6 million), and Taraba (N24.5 million).
- With dwindling federally collected revenue, caused by volatility in global crude oil price and economic downtrend caused by COVID-19 pandemic, it is evident that federal allocations will likely face drastic decline, which is a cue for the State governments to strategize on more creative ways of generating revenue internally.
- A quick check at the states’ IGR numbers, shows that 91.9% of the states in Nigeria with the exception of Abuja, Ogun, and Lagos States rely more on federal allocation, as against internally generated revenue.
- This implies that several states in Nigeria are technically bankrupt without debt financing, and Federal Government monthly allocation.
Despite billions on agriculture, food inflation up by 108% since 2015
About N2 trillion spent in the last 5 years to achieve food self-sufficiency.
Nigeria’s food inflation has more than doubled since August 2015, exactly 5 years after the Buhari Administration took charge of the Nigerian economy.
This was determined by comparing the composite index for food inflation rate in August 2020 versus same period in 2015. The difference is a whopping 108% increase in inflation rate, in just 5 years. Within this period, Nigeria’s exchange rate has been devalued by 49%.
Whilst the Nigerian economy has been ravaged by a very low oil price environment, since it fell from over $100 per barrel in 2014, most of the reasons for the increase in cost of living are partly attributed to some of the policies of the government.
Since 2015, the government has focused on a ‘grow-what-you-can-eat’ policy, pouring billions of naira into the agricultural sector. Since its inception in 2015, the Anchor Borrowers Programme (ABP), has received about N190billion disbursement from the CBN.
Another N622billion was lent through banks under the Commercial Agriculture Credit Scheme. Add the various grants, tax incentives, and concessions, that’s almost N2 trillion spent in the last 5 years on helping Nigeria to achieve food self-sufficiency.
Whilst modest successes have been recorded, the cost of staple food items remain high – galloping in each passing month. Since the border closure was announced in August 2019, the food inflation rate has risen every month, from 13.17% in August of 2019 to 16% last month. It is projected to hit 20% by the first quarter of 2021, when the effects of the increase in petrol and electricity prices are accounted for.
Nigerians have never had it this bad. Despite the good intentions of the government, things have not particularly turned out well. A common challenge in trying to solve a problem is not being able to manage what is outside of your control. In agriculture, a lot seem to be outside of the control of this government.
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Yield per hectare for most farming is well below global standards, driving up the cost of whatever is left to be sold to Nigerians. Farmers also face insecurity, flooding, and sometimes famine affecting their ability to plant and harvest. Even after harvesting, supply chain challenges still persist, leaving farmers to contend with middlemen, transportation, and storage. The result is far less farm produce reaching the final consumer.
For items under its control, it still cannot determine the outcomes, and the causes and effects. Just last week, it announced the banning of maize, only to flip-flop after learning that poultry farmers lacked maize feeds to grow their chickens. It quickly granted licenses to four companies to import maize.
Thus, while the government attempts to manage what it can control such as banning of imports, denying access to forex, and of course border closure, it cannot solve all these problems with CBN funding and banning. They are structural, and require a better approach that is private sector driven, yet pragmatic. The government also needs to tell itself the truth; Nigeria cannot be self-sufficient by banning.
So long as we continue to avoid relying on data and objective reasoning, to balance the need for local agro-processing and imports to meet demand, food inflation will remain high and galloping. Who knows, by the time this administration’s tenure is up, we could be looking at a state of emergency driven by a full blown food crisis.
Nigeria’s inflation rate hits 13.22% in August 2020, highest in 29 months
Highest increases were recorded in prices of Passenger transport by air, Hospital services, Medical services, Pharmaceutical products and others.
Nigeria’s inflation rate rose to 13.22% in August 2020, highest recorded in 29 months, since March 2018 (13.24%). This was contained in the recent Consumer Price Index (CPI) report, released by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS).
The latest figure is 0.40% points higher than the rate recorded in July 2020 (12.82%). while on a month-on-month basis, the Headline index increased by 1.34% in August 2020.
Food inflation: A closely watched component of the inflation index, stood at 16% in August compared to 15.48% recorded in July 2020. On month-on-month basis, the food sub-index increased by 1.67% in August 2020, up by 0.15% points from 1.52% recorded in July 2020.
This rise in the food index was attributed to increases in prices of Bread and cereals, Potatoes, Yam and other tubers, Meat, Fish, Fruits, Oils and fats, and Vegetables.
Core inflation: This excludes the prices of volatile agricultural produce, also rose to 10.52% in August 2020. It is up by 0.42% points when compared with 10.1% recorded in July 2020. On month-on-month basis, the core sub-index increased by 1.05% in August 2020. This was up by 0.30% points when compared with 0.75% recorded in July 2020.
What drove inflation: Inflation for the month of August was driven by recorded increase in prices of Passenger transport by air, Hospital services, Medical services, Pharmaceutical products, Maintenance, and Repair of personal transport equipment.
Others are Vehicle spare parts, Motor cars, Passenger transport by road, Repair of furniture, and Paramedical services.
Upshot: As Nigerians continue to grapple with the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the reopening of the economy, prices of commodities such as air transport, and medical services seems to have been affected due to policies implemented, with the aim of curbing the spread of COVID-19 in the country.
It is therefore evident that Nigerians are spending more, despite fixed income, contraction of economic activities, and dwindling rate of investment returns.