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Withholding Tax: Beginners’ Guide For Small Businesses in Nigeria

Beginners’ Guide For Small Businesses on Withholding Tax in Nigeria



FIRS could seal your office if you get these two notices

Whether you are opting out of a paid job to run your own business, or you are entering into business with zero employment experience; one thing is certain: you are becoming an administrator and a business leader if you scale through. As such, it is required that you perform some managerial  obligations in the best interest of your business.

This is to expertly prevent you suffering undue charges in the long run. One of such obligations is the issue of Withholding Tax that comes in various ways. Here is a comprehensive guide detailing all you need to know about Withholding Tax in Nigeria.

What is a Withholding Tax?

A withholding tax is basically an advance and indirect source of taxation deducted at source from the invoices of the tax payer. It’s main purpose is to capture as much tax payers that may have evaded tax into the tax net. Withholding tax rates are usually 10% or 5% depending on the type of transaction and collecting authority for the tax (which can be a Federal Inland Revenue or the State Inland Revenue).

[ALSO READ: A legal view of corporate taxation in Nigeria]

Withholding tax

[ALSO READ: Taxes you need to be aware of if you are about to start a business]

How Does it work?

When a company or individual supplies goods or services to another company an invoice will usually be issued as evidence of a transaction. If for example the amount payable by the purchaser is N1million at the relevant tax rate is 10% then upon payment the purchaser will deduct N100,000 from the invoice of the supplier and then remit to the relevant tax authority.

The Purchaser is also obligated to obtain evidence of remittance in the form of a withholding tax credit note on behalf of the supplier. The Supplier can now use the tax credit not to reduce any income tax payable at the end of his year of assessment.

How do I use a WHT Note to reduce my income taxes?

WHT is an advance payment of your income tax, therefore if at the end of a financial year your tax payable is N500,000.00 and an aggregate of all your WHT credit note is N200,000.00, the net tax you will pay to the government will be N300,000.00. That is why it is important to keep your WHT Note.

withholding tax 2

[ALSO READ: A legal view of corporate taxation in Nigeria]

Please tell me more on the WHT Note

Okay, the WHT credit note is a document issued by a relevant tax authority to a beneficiary as evidence that withholding tax was deducted from its business. It is usually issued to the company that deducted the WHT from your invoice as such you must endeavour to always go back and request for it. This is because without it you will not be able to claim back the money that has been deducted from your invoice.

A WHT Credit note will include the following

  1. Credit Number
  2. The name of the tax payer (purchaser of your services or goods) who deducted the tax and remitted on your behalf
  3. The name of the beneficiary whose invoice was deducted (which is you I suppose)
  4. The Date of the transaction including the nature of the transaction

So what happens if my customer fails to remit my taxes on time?

Too bad, there is nothing much you can do except complain and then blacklist the customer. However, the tax authority upon noticing have penalties ranging from 200% per annum of tax not remitted for companies and N5,000 per annum for individuals. Meaning if your customer fails to remit N100k in withholding taxes already deducted from your invoice his penalty will be to pay N200k extra.

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This penalty also applies to anybody who equally fails to deduct as well. Fortunately though, the tax authority can exercise leniency and grant the default some reprieve against the penalty.


remitter withholding tax

[ALSO READ: Taxes you need to be aware of if you are about to start a business]

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As the Remitter , when Do I have to remit the taxes I deduct?

So, if you deduct taxes from your suppliers invoice you must file returns at the end of any given month. All you do, is draw up a schedule detailing the list of companies you deducted taxes from, their addresses, the value of the invoices,  the tax deducted and the rate, Your name and address as the tax payer and the relevant tax authority . You then attach a cheque(s) for the total amount deducted for the month.

You can pay directly to the bank. Banks these days have agent who collect these cheques on your behalf and promptly obtain receipt of payment on your behalf. After obtaining receipt of payments, you now take to the relevant tax authority attached to your schedule, so you can be handed the WHT credit notes on behalf of your clients. You should keep a file for all the WHT Credit note you receive on behalf of your clients for easy accessibility.

Does it mean all transactions involve WHT?

WHT is mainly for transaction involving contract of purchase. What this means is that WHT can only be deucted from your invoice if it involves supply of goods and services to a destination requested for by your client. WHT cannot be deducted in the ordinary course of your business, meaning if I you sell soaps and I come to your shop or market to buy the soap, I cannot deduct WHT from your receipt.

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However, If I ask you to supply to me then that becomes a contract and as such I am obliged to deduct WHT from you.

[ALSO READ: A legal view of corporate taxation in Nigeria]

Please what do you really mean by Relevant Tax Authority?

A relevant tax authority is either the State or the Federal Government. The State Government collected WHT from Individuals or Sole Traders under the Personal Income Tax Act. The Federal Inland Revenue collects tax on behalf of the Federal Government under the Company Income Tax Act

CAVEAT: Don’t forget to always consult a tax consultant for help with your taxes. This only serves as a guide.


[ALSO READ: Taxes you need to be aware of if you are about to start a business]

Ugo Obi-chukwu "Ugodre" is a chartered accountant with over 16 years experience in financial management, corporate finance and financial analysis. He is also a retail investor and a personal finance advocate with over a decade experience investing in the Nigerian stock market.Ugo is the founder/Publisher of Nairametrics and blogs regularly on the website.



  1. Heather

    October 26, 2013 at 5:40 am

    Precisely what really motivated you to create “A-Z Of Withholding Tax In Nigeria – Beginners Guide For Small Businesses | UGOMETRICS BLOG”?
    I personallycertainly adored the post! Thanks -Anita

  2. zoefafa

    March 22, 2014 at 10:50 pm

    thanks a lot ugometrics. stumbling upon the link that brought me to this site has been like striking a diamond mine of financial literacy. thanks a bunchy y’all.

  3. subas

    March 26, 2014 at 12:43 pm

    Very educating…

  4. Anonymous

    July 23, 2014 at 9:36 am

    I found this article on withholding tax very useful. I think that there is a high risk of double taxation with this category of tax. The other issue is the technicality involved in determining what constitutes ordinary course of business especially for service providers. I believe that if the other heads of taxes are well monitored and executed, there would be no need for withholding tax and the risk of double taxation for instance via WHT and VAT on the same service

  5. Teingo Inko-Tariah

    July 23, 2014 at 9:37 am

    I found this article on withholding tax very useful. I think that there is a high risk of double taxation with this category of tax. The other issue is the technicality involved in determining what constitutes ordinary course of business especially for service providers. I believe that if the other heads of taxes are well monitored and executed, there would be no need for withholding tax and the risk of double taxation for instance via WHT and VAT on the same service

  6. Mordi Vincent

    September 30, 2014 at 11:32 am

    Thanks for educating me in the field of Taxation.

  7. Eno

    November 13, 2014 at 9:45 pm

    Very educating. Thank u for the awareness on dis topic

  8. omolara

    November 20, 2014 at 2:51 pm

    Beautiful! Really helped

  9. Sandra

    December 3, 2014 at 3:46 pm

    Please, I need clarification on something. My employer charged a supplier WHT on his invoice, and the selling price of the goods already has VAT included. So the supplier claims that since he has charged VAT on the transaction that there was no need to pay his fees net of WHT again.
    Could you please provide explanation to clear this.

    • Nairametrics

      December 3, 2014 at 4:18 pm

      Hi Sandra, You charge 10% WHT (if it is a registered company) or 5% WHT (if its a sole trader) on his invoice.So for example, he sells you an item costing N100 and charges 5% VAT his invoice will be N105. However, before paying you deduct the WHT from the N100 and not N105. The tax base for WHT is on the supply value (excluding VAT) Cheers

      • Sullivan

        February 18, 2015 at 9:48 am

        Hi Nairametrics, the first sentence of your explanation is not quite correct. What determines the WHT tax rate is first of all the nature of the transaction and then the entity type. For example, a supply of a good or the provision of a service (contract of supply/service) will attract WHT at 5% irrespective of whether it is an incorporated entity (limited liability company, plc) or unincorporated entity (partnership, enterprises etc.

    • Dennis

      April 13, 2017 at 2:11 pm

      Since the invoice is vat inclusive, then your employer was right by deducting WHT from the invoice.

  10. Jide

    December 6, 2014 at 1:55 pm


  11. Bola

    January 16, 2015 at 10:29 am

    Thanks… This is really helpful

  12. Osasuyi Peter

    January 26, 2015 at 12:59 pm

    WTH has been clearly explained in your post. I really like the examples and the simple language used. Thank you a lot.

  13. Osasuyi Peter

    January 26, 2015 at 1:04 pm

    I meant WHT up there.

  14. Sullivan

    February 18, 2015 at 9:55 am

    A good post…. We have setup Taxassit to provide free tax services to starters and SMEs in Lagos and Port Harcourt. All tax advices are provided by volunteers with experience from the big 4 accounting firms.

    The website is under construction and the services are completely free.

    • Anonymous

      March 9, 2016 at 5:40 pm

      Thanks for the good initiative I’m highly interested to participate you can reach me on [email protected] thanks
      Adekola Taofeek Aca

    • juciken

      March 21, 2018 at 5:56 pm

      What’s the endpoint of the free service? If free indeed, then I am interested

  15. Oby

    March 11, 2015 at 8:32 am

    Does a company in a particular state pay WHT on supplies of raw materials to the state Government where it resides.

  16. Oby

    March 11, 2015 at 8:33 am

    Does a company in a particular state pay WHT on supplies of raw materials to the state Government where it resides and if not why

    • Nairametrics

      March 11, 2015 at 9:41 am

      Companies pay WHT to the FG not state. Only Sole traders or One Man businesses or Partnerships pay to the state

    • Anonymous

      January 19, 2016 at 2:38 pm

      Please can WHT be deducted in rents?

  17. Agie

    March 17, 2015 at 10:48 am

    who can the lagos internal revenue service collect WHT from? can it be collected from a limited liability company?

  18. Emmanuel Uwaga

    July 29, 2015 at 10:54 am

    Please what will be the right WHT treatment on invoice sent iro out sourced staff salaries with all statutory deductions to be remitted by the sourcing firm?

    • Nairametrics

      July 29, 2015 at 6:50 pm

      We believe it is 10%

      • Anonymous

        May 19, 2019 at 4:00 am

        10% of the total invoice or 10% of service charged?


    November 19, 2015 at 12:42 pm

    This is quite rich and knowledge broadening. Kindly cite the relevant tax legislation and date for WHT legislation in Nigeria

  20. Opiughie John

    January 19, 2016 at 8:39 am

    Can WHT be deducted in retrospect?

  21. Constance Joy

    January 19, 2016 at 2:40 pm

    Please how can WHT be deducted from rent?

  22. jamiu

    January 28, 2016 at 3:11 pm

    For transactions that attract both vat and wht. I think the normal practice of deduction is to deduct vat first from the gross value and later apply appropriate wht rate on the net after vat. Some say no to this approach.they opined that the wht rate should be applied on the gross. Please which of these opinions is right

    • Anonymous

      March 2, 2017 at 7:39 am

      WHT rate should be applied on the net amount. Applying it on the gross will amount to charging WHT on VAT.

  23. Anonymous

    February 4, 2016 at 4:32 pm

    This article is wonderful. All thanks

  24. Gideon

    February 9, 2016 at 12:35 pm

    How do you handle a situation where WHT was not deducted on previous payments on a contract which occurred in previous years? Can WHT of the previous payments be deducted by the Client from the outstanding balance in the preceding year?

  25. Ada

    February 17, 2016 at 11:32 am

    Do you need to withold WHT if you have not paid the supplier?

  26. Anonymous

    April 7, 2016 at 9:58 am

    Thanks for the post….
    However, in a case of an unincorporated company (Enterprise), I understand it is not liable to pay Company Income Tax. The customers have been paying WHT on its behalf. How does an Enterprise claim back the deducted WHT from the government since it is not liable for CIT?

  27. Irene

    April 15, 2016 at 9:33 am

    This post is brilliant. The language is simple and very comprehensible. Thank you so much for this insightful piece. Can you please provide the link to the Taxassist website you spoke about?

  28. idris Olufowobi

    April 20, 2016 at 10:45 am

    Is WHT applicable on foods supplied by a fast food outlet for a function?

    Will appreciate your prompt response.

    • Nairametrics

      April 20, 2016 at 1:16 pm

      Yes it is

  29. Victor Olanrewaju

    April 25, 2016 at 3:28 pm

    Thanks so much for this piece

  30. willy

    June 9, 2016 at 9:44 am

    The text is simplified and very interesting.

  31. Maureen

    June 13, 2016 at 6:30 am

    Thanks so much you have saved me the stress of going to FIRS for enquiry.

  32. Chika

    June 17, 2016 at 10:32 am

    This has to be an all time classic! Thank you nairametrics for helping small businesses everywhere!

  33. Dayo Akande

    July 7, 2016 at 7:21 pm

    The write up on WHT is educative and insightful. Thank you

  34. Dare

    August 25, 2016 at 11:38 am

    Good write-up, but quick question pls. Supposing I gave out an Invoice with contract value of N50,000 and VAT of N2,500. Total Invoice value comes to N52,500. The client paid N47,500 (which is a deduction of 10% WHT on the contract value). My question is since the client deducted withholding tax and gave me the WHT credit note, am I still supposed to remit the VAT of N2,500 to FIRS? Thinking it will be double taxation when I remit VAT of N2,500 again from my N47,500. please help out. Thanks

    • Nairametrics

      August 25, 2016 at 1:16 pm

      Hi…it will not be double taxation. You are still expected to remit the N2,500 as vat. You only remit less if you have a corresponding input vat

    • Immanuel Silas

      March 2, 2017 at 8:35 am

      Let’s look at it this way:

      Contract value 50000
      VAT 2500
      Total 52500

      When payment is made.

      Cheque 47500
      Credit Note 5000
      Total 52,500

      Hence, when you remit VAT of N2500 from the cheque amount, You’ll still be left with your contract value of N50000 which is now made up of N45000 in bank and N5000 in form of WHT credit note.

    • Adekunle

      July 11, 2019 at 9:25 am

      Hi Dare,
      If the WHT Credit Note issued to you is valued at N5,000, (as against N2,500 at 5% as expected), it then means a 10% rate was applied to your invoice. However, you still have to remit the VAT of N2,500.
      Thank you

  35. Lanre

    November 9, 2016 at 1:41 pm

    Thanks so much for the info. Is my school’s end of year party also liable to the WHT?

  36. Philip

    December 11, 2016 at 9:39 pm

    Please if am paying withholding tax, should I pay for the tax that is called for by a local government council?

    • Nairametrics

      December 11, 2016 at 10:21 pm

      Pls explain better. What local government tax are you referring to?

  37. Peju Olufemi

    February 16, 2017 at 12:03 pm

    I appreciate your good work but I will enjoy updates on economic issues,


  38. Olumide Olumorokun

    May 31, 2017 at 2:06 pm

    The A-Z of Witholding tax in Nigeria depicts the best way of explanation of the concept of Witholding tax with clarity on the part of a lay-man. thank you

  39. chima frank

    June 1, 2017 at 1:35 pm

    am in a supply firm, we have not been given WHT credit note from a particular company for some time now and the authority(government) have charged us to bring our note or to pay the bills. pls i want to know how to go through in getting all the WHT from that company we have been supplying to.

  40. John

    September 2, 2017 at 4:41 pm

    less grammar and jargons. Simply telling what it is anyone might be wanting to know. Thank you very much

  41. Onosemuode Efe

    September 14, 2017 at 11:56 am

    How do I generate a schedule, please? Thanks.

  42. Olukayode Adedayo

    September 25, 2017 at 8:51 pm

    If I am not the purchaser or supplier and WHT has been deducted from purchaser, would I still pay tax on my commission received from supplier?


    October 19, 2017 at 5:26 pm

    If a supplier of service gave a certain % of discount to a purchaser, what value will be subjected to WHT? is it the gross or the net value?

  44. Anonymous

    February 21, 2018 at 8:55 pm

    Please how do you account for WHT tax (from service provider’s perspective)? I would like to know the accounting entries.

  45. Divine

    April 4, 2018 at 10:28 pm

    My tenant, an eatery pays one million as rent, is it right for the tenant to deduct 10% from my rent as WHT even when l am a retiree. Please, l really want to be educated on this. Divine

    • Nairametrics

      April 5, 2018 at 7:07 pm

      The eatery will deduct WHT from rent payment to you if the house is not owner-occupied.

  46. Anonymous

    April 24, 2018 at 3:15 pm

    Best description, simple and straight to the point! Thank you

  47. Ife

    June 25, 2018 at 4:32 pm

    Thank you for the info. Kindly advice on what to write to a client who deducts witholding tax on total invoice instead on admin charge. Thank you

  48. Prince Oputun

    June 26, 2018 at 12:20 pm

    Thank you for the information.

  49. Caroline

    June 28, 2018 at 4:01 pm

    Thanks for this article, could you please let me know if WHT is applicable for transport services(air freight shipment from Europe to Lagos) invoiced by a foreign company

    • Adenike

      December 6, 2018 at 4:53 pm

      WHT can only be charged on transactions carried out within Nigeria. Foreign company’s will not have any means of accessing the credit notes.

  50. Anonymous

    July 10, 2018 at 12:05 pm

    Thanks, the article is educating.

  51. Anonymous

    August 1, 2018 at 10:45 am

    Good Article, please how much withholding tax is deducted from a retainership fee meant for a Law firm who offer legal services to a company?

    Remember the Law firm is an enterprise not a company.

  52. Lyn

    August 16, 2018 at 1:08 pm

    so we paid our agent the sum of 15m for rent and the contract stated that the amount was net of tax. so this means we will pay 10% of that amount to LIRS? kindly assist as i will appreciated your swift response.

  53. K7

    August 28, 2018 at 12:04 pm

    If another country ( DRC Congo) deducts WHT for an export contract from Nigeria ..can the Nigerian co. use the WHT credit note to claim Tax offset

  54. Lucky Ehigie

    August 29, 2018 at 3:12 pm

    Can WHT be deducted on a landed property trasaction? Say I sell my house to a company at an agreed sum, does the company have any power to deduct any amount in the name of WHT?

  55. Topaz

    April 12, 2019 at 5:07 am

    What are the differences between vat and wht?

  56. Today Birthday

    December 28, 2019 at 9:22 pm

    I relish, result in I found just what I used to be looking for.
    You have ended my four day long hunt! God Bless you man. Have
    a nice day. Bye

  57. Bayo

    January 25, 2020 at 11:58 am

    What can be done if my employer has been deducting my tax and pension from my salary every month and they refuse to remit it and it has been ongoing for 4 months?

  58. Toochi

    February 29, 2020 at 8:53 am

    Clear and direct. Many thanks. Thanks again.


    March 5, 2020 at 8:22 pm

    Good evening and thanks for this explantion on WHT. Do you charge WHT on the total value on the invoice or the service charge of the supplier?

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Personal Finance

5C’s of creditworthiness: What lenders, Investors look for in a business plan

Business owners need to be aware of the criteria lenders and investors use when evaluating the creditworthiness of entrepreneurs seeking financing.



Five things to consider before securing a loan

Banks usually are not a new venture’s sole source of capital because a bank’s return is limited by the interest rate it negotiates, but its risk could be the entire amount of the loan if the new business fails. Once a business is operational and has an established financial track record, banks become a regular source of financing.

For this reason, the small business owner needs to be aware of the criteria lenders and investors use when evaluating the creditworthiness of entrepreneurs seeking financing.

Will the business that an entrepreneur actually creates look exactly like the company described in the business plan? Of course, not.

The real value in preparing a business plan is not so much in the finished document itself but in the process it goes through – a process in which the entrepreneur learns how to compete successfully in the marketplace. In addition, a solid plan is essential to raising the capital needed to start a business; lenders and investors demand it.

Lenders and investors refer to these criteria as the five C’s of credit.

READ: 5 ways to raise funding for your business

1. Capital: A small business must have a stable income base before any lender is willing to grant a loan. Otherwise, the lender would not be making, in effect, a capital investment in the business. Most banks refuse to make loans that are capital investment because the potential for return on the investment is limited strictly on the interest on the loan, and the potential loss would probably exceed the reward. In addition, the most common reasons that banks give for rejecting small business loan applications are undercapitalization or too much debt. Banks expect a small company to have an equity base investment by the owner(s) that will help support the venture during times of financial strain, which are common during the start-up and growth phases of a business. Lenders and investors see capital as a risk-sharing strategy with entrepreneurs.

2. Capacity: A synonym for capital is cash flow. Lenders and investors must be convinced of the firm’s ability to meet its regular financial obligation and to repay loans, and that takes cash. More small businesses fail from lack of cash than from lack of profit. It is possible for a company to be showing a profit and still have no cash – that is, to be bankrupt. Lenders expect small businesses to pass the test of liquidity, especially for short term loans. Potential lenders and investors examine closely a small company’s cash flow position to decide whether it has the capacity necessary to survive until it can sustain itself.

READ: How to scale as a small business on a budget

3. Collateral: Collateral includes any asset an entrepreneur pledges to a lender as security for repayment of a loan. If the company defaults on a loan, the lender has the right to sell the collateral and use the proceeds to satisfy the loan. Typically, banks make much unsecured loans (those not backed up by collateral) to business start-ups. Bankers view the entrepreneurs’ willingness to pledge collateral (personal or business assets) as an indication of their dedication to making the venture a success. A sound business plan can improve a banker’s attitude towards venture.

4. Character: Before extending a loan or making an investment in a small business, lenders and investors must be satisfied with an entrepreneur’s character. The evaluation of character frequently is based on intangible factors such as honesty, integrity, competence, polish, determination, intelligence, and ability. Although the qualities judged are abstract, this evaluation plays a critical role in the decision to put money into a business or not.

READ: 7 Ways to pay for your higher education

5. Conditions: The conditions surrounding a funding request also affects an entrepreneur’s chances of receiving financing. Lenders and investors consider factors relating to a business’ operation such as potential growth in the market, competition, location, strength, weakness, opportunities and threats. Another important condition influencing the banks is the shape of the overall economy, including interest rate levels, inflation rate, and demand for money. Although these factors are beyond an entrepreneur’s control, they still are an important component in a banker’s decision.

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The higher a smaller business scores on the five C’s, the greater its chances of receiving a loan.



Written by Chukwuma Aguwa

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Personal Finance

Don’t be fooled by COVID-related scams

Always consult the institution in charge of health-related matters to confirm any fishy information you come across.



The nature of and the manifestation of the Covid-19 disease is such that there’s only a little time available to remedy the situation before it gets chronic. Although the infection begins by exhibiting mild symptoms, if you do nothing in a short time, it could lead to death in a matter of days.

This whole picture has caused many to become desperate about Covid-related issues, launching into panic mode at the sight of any information. As a result, such people are not far away from falling for fraudsters.

With the different kinds of news flying around, you mustn’t be fooled by Covid-related scams.

The Coronavirus threatens the health of millions of people around the world daily, also killing thousands along the way. To curb the spread and remedy the situation, bodies like the CDC, WHO, and every country’s local health organisation like the NCDC, frequently circulate information around communities. However, it has also led to fraudsters taking advantage to provide fake news, and even asking for donations.

Each day, there seems to be a new account or NGO asking for donations into the health sector, and though some are legit, many are just fraudsters posing to take advantage of innocent citizens. So far, numerous complaints about scams have been recorded, especially with people who are looking to support the health cause in any way they can.

READ: Africa to spend $9 billion on Covid-19 vaccine, access to supply is big problem

Channels used for COVID-related scams 

There are three major ways scammers take advantage of the haziness of the situation to dupe people. To start with, they appeal to the emotions of humans, who see the high death toll and suffering. As a result of what is happening, people have been willing to donate funds for medical supplies, isolation centres, and financial compensation for medical workers.

Scammers take advantage of this by posing as charity organisations and solicit for funds. Most times, as soon as their target is met, they clear their footprint without leaving a trace behind.

Another way they scam people is by manufacturing and selling fake or low-quality health products. Everyone wants to get their hands on a cure, or something that can at least protect them from the virus, and scammers are meeting their needs by providing just that.

READ: China joins WHO vaccine programme as it fills huge gap left by United States

The World Health Organization currently approves only one vaccine, and any other thing outside it is outrightly fake or just a supplement that will help your body. Currently, only the Pfizer vaccine is clinically tested and approved to work. Be sure to not throw your money in the wind by purchasing some of these fake drugs around.

Lastly, scammers create systems to extract a patient’s personal information, thereby having access to the person’s true identity. It could be in the simple form of opening a registration portal where you supply all your details.

Therefore, only give information to approved bodies and not any random online site that appears legit. These fraudulent individuals can do a lot of damage to your identity. Stay vigilant, only communicate with approved bodies, and always ask questions if you are not sure or suspect foul play.

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The place of electronics in COVID-related scams

These fraudsters usually reach out to you through the digital sphere. Hence, watch out for cold calls, text messages, or emails requesting donations to certain bodies. The best way to confirm the legitimacy of such a message is to visit the organisation’s official website in a different browser. Never follow the link in the mail or text directly, as it can be easily embedded with spyware. Therefore, a single click could see them extract all your personal information, including bank details.


Also, please stay away from those who claim to have a cure, and accompany it with testimonies of people who have used it. They are low graders desperate for your money. Vet them by searching online and see what people are saying. In all, always look out for suspicious messages, and opt out if you are sceptical.

In a nutshell, you should not believe any cure, vaccine or supplement that the World Health Organization does not approve of.

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The government or legit health institutions do not cold call citizens to request donations or coerce them into making one. If you receive a call out of the blues, chances are it’s a scam, which is why they mostly try to hurry you to donate before you realise it. Always consult the institution in charge of health-related matters to confirm any fishy information you come across.

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