Bonds are increasingly becoming popular financial instruments in Nigeria with the introduction of the FGN Savings Bond. Until that introduction, bonds were relatively out of reach for retail investors.
Many investors, especially retail investors, also think that bonds investments come with no risk compared to equity investments, especially when such bonds are issued by the federal government or other sovereign entities. That assumption or insinuation is not perfectly correct. Infact every investment activity, be it bond, equity or real estate comes with risk although the risks may differ in magnitude and severity.
In this article, we will look at risks in bond investing.
As a premise for this discussion, we will take bond investing to mean a situation where the bond investor or buyer lends money to the bond issuer in exchange for periodic payment of interest and eventual repayment of the principal amount lent to the issuer at an agreed date, usually the date that the bond matures.
With that definition at the back of our mind, one would see that there is a risk that the issuer may not be able to pay the interest when due or even not be able to repay the principal at maturity. This inability or failure to pay is the risk of default. Default risk can be complete or partial. Complete default risk arises where nothing is repaid on a bond while partial default arises where a portion of the bond is repaid.
Usually, before a bond issuer issues a bond or places the bond on offer, it usually obtains a rating from a recognized rating agency like Agusto. The rating adds credibility to the bond being issued.
However, after the issue, the fortunes of the issuer may change in such a way that the rating agency may change the rating assigned to the bond, either upward or downward. So, downgrade risk is the risk that a credit agency will reduce the credit rating assigned to the bond/issuer based on the issuers’ current earnings power and its ability to repay the bond.
A serious downgrade can turn an originally high-grade bond to a junk leaving the investor with a worthless piece of paper- the bond indenture.
Credit Spread Risk:
In some cases, bonds are valued in reference to a reference bond. For example, a corporate bond maturing in 10 years may be valued with reference to the 10-year FGN bond.
Depending on the difference between the bond and its reference instrument, the yield between them may be quite close but as the fundamentals of the issuer changes, the market begins to react to the changes. This reaction could lead to a narrowing or widening of the difference between the yields.
Under normal circumstances, the market demands some compensation if the fundamentals of an issuer weakens and the compensation comes by way of increased yield which derives from a fall in bond price. The inverse relationship between bond price and interest rate implies that when the market price of a bond falls, its yield increases.
Therefore, credit spread risk is the risk that the spread over a reference rate will increase. Changes in credit spreads affect the value of a bond and can lead to losses or underperformance relative to a reference bond or benchmark. Credit spread risk is related to downgrade risk in that the higher the rating, the smaller the credit spread and vice versa.
One major difference between equity investments and bond investments is that equities can be held for as long as you want unless the company gets delisted. But bonds have maturity date, being the date that you will receive your original investment back.
Unless you had planned to use the repaid amount for something its, chances are that you would like to reinvest the amount realized from a matured bond by buying another bond.
However, depending on the direction of market interest rate, you may not be able to reinvest in a bond with similar characteristics as the one that matured. If interest rate is decreasing, you will most likely reinvest in more pricy or expensive bonds with lower coupons. The risk of not finding an appropriate bond to invest in or reinvesting in a more expensive but lower coupon bond, is reinvestment risk. This risk is more predominant with investments in callable bonds.
A callable bond is a bond that grants the issuer the right to repay the bond before maturity (usually on call dates) and issuers tend to exercise this right when interest rates are falling because it gives them the opportunity to save on coupon payments and manage their balance sheet.
Unlike equities that are readily traded on a daily basis, bonds are not as readily traded. This happens more with corporate bonds and more so when the fortunes of the issuer weakens. There may be the likelihood that an investor holding a bond may not be able to find a buyer when he wants to sell. This risk of not being able to sell as at when needed is the liquidity risk inherent in bond investing. Note that this risk does not apply to government bonds as much as it does to corporates.
Now, when you pick up that pen to complete the forms to buy a bond, you know the risks you are up against.
DEVALUATION: CBN updates website to official rate of N360/$1
The central bank of Nigeria has devalued its official exchange rate from N307/$1 to N360/$1.
Just as Nairametrics reported, the Central Bank of Nigeria has devalued its official exchange rate from N307/$1 to N360/$1. The apex bank has now reflected this change on its website signaling a confirmation. The bank is yet to issue a press release to this effect.
The CBN has now officially devalued by 15% moving from N307/$1 to N360/$1. Depreciation at the “market-determined” I&E window is 5% having moved from N360/$1 to N380/$1
Devaluation: Nairametrics reported yesterday that the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) sold dollars to banks at N380/$1 in a move signifying a devaluation of the currency. Banks trading at the Investor and Exporter (I&E) window bought dollars at N360/$1 from the CBN on Friday, March 20, 2020. The I&E window is the official market where forex is traded between banks, the CBN, foreign investors, and businesses. The central bank typically buys or sells in the market as part of its intervention program.
Nairametrics also got hold of a letter from the CBN to banks informing them of the new exchange rate for dollars flowing from the International Money Transfer Operators (IMTOs). According to the CBN, IMTOs will sell to banks at N376/$1 while banks will sell to the CBN at N377/$1. The CBN will sell to BDC’s at N378/$1 while the BDC’s will sell to end-users at “no more than” N380/$1.
Single Exchange Rate: A report yesterday also suggested that the CBN also planned to move to a single exchange rate policy for determining the price of the dollar. A senior central bank official who does not want to be identified, said, ‘Today we allowed the rate at the importer and exporters (I&E) window to adjust in response to market developments.’
The central bank has now made an apparent u-turn after it had initially that the “market fundamentals do not support naira devaluation at this time” detailing reasons why it did not need to devalue.
Falling oil price: Oil prices fell to under $20 on Friday before climbing back up to settle at $23 per barrel. Nigeria’s Bonny light trades at $26 while the benchmark Brent crude trades at $29 per barrel. In response to the crash in oil price, Nigeria’s announced a cut to its 2020 budget by N1.5 trillion as it faced the reality of a potential drop in its revenues. Nairametrics also has information that state governments are getting jittery about their ability to sustain salary payments as a reduction in their federal allocation “FAAC” is anticipated.
Investment options for salary earners
Investment options for the salary earners
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Recently, one of the readers of my articles asked to know what investment options are open to salary earners. A salaried individual is like everyone else except that he or she has a fixed monthly income. This implies that their investments and expenses have to be managed strictly according to their fixed monthly income.
Since salary is assumed to be the only source of income for the salaried, it is advisable that such an individual fortify himself financially before investing so that adverse investment performance will not have untold effect on him and his family. Therefore, if you are a salaried prospective investor, you need to:
Get life insurance
Most families in Nigeria are single income families so much such that if anything bad happens to the income earner, the family gets shattered, at least financially. Again, given the risks inherent in capital market investments, it is only prudent to have a life insurance as a first step in one’s investment journey. It is very baffling to see many investors very deep into the market, yet they do not have life insurance.
[Read Also: Understanding the risks in bond investing]
Life insurance is and should be a basic part of any financial plan. Life insurance is a protection for loved ones against financial hardship arising from the death of a breadwinner. This is even more important today than ever before with high cost of funeral expenses, college education and medical bills. So, the first investment option for a salaried individual is to get a life insurance.
Prepare for financial emergencies
Life is full of surprises, emergencies do happen, jobs are lost without notices, and even good investment opportunities emerge sometimes suddenly. There is, therefore, the need for a cash reserve to help weather the financial storms and emergencies when they come calling.
Cash reserves do not only provide for emergencies, they also help to ensure that investments are not liquidated prematurely or at inopportune times to cover unexpected expenses. There are no hard and fast rules on what the exact amount of the required cash reserve should be, but most financial experts and planners will advise that an amount that equals about six months of living expenses be set aside.
So, as a salaried person, your next investment should be to have a cash reserve. A cash reserve should not necessarily be in a savings account or under the mattress; it could be in an interest-bearing money market account, money market mutual funds with low to zero luck-up period or another form of very liquid investment that is readily convertible to cash without loss of value.
[Read Also: Understanding the risks in bond investing]
Know your risk appetite
As a salaried and fixed income individual, your risk appetite is most likely going to be low as well as your risk tolerance, although your extended family profile could change all that. You need to know or understand your risk tolerance before you engage in any capital market investment.
Your risk tolerance will and should drive the type of investments you go into. Your risk tolerance depends on your psychological makeup, your current insurance coverage, presence or absence of cash reserve, family situation, and your age among others.
Talking about family situation, it is reasonable to think that a married individual whose children are still in school will be more risk averse than an unmarried person. On the other hand, older people have shorter investment time horizon within which to make up for any losses. the reason for this is because the older you get the less time you have to work to recoup on losses.
In that case the risk tolerance of an older man will be less than those for younger folks. Again, the more cash reserve and insurance coverage you have, the more your propensity to take risk. Now having known your risk tolerance based on the underlying factors, you can then define your investment objectives
[Read Also: Important tips on how to profit in a bearish market]
Set your Investment objectives/goals
Having met those essentials above, you are now ready for a serious investment plan or program. A good investment plan starts with investment objectives. Investment objectives are the force that determines what you invest in. Investment objectives range from capital preservation, to capital appreciation and constant income generation.
Capital preservation as an investment objective implies that you, the investor, aim at minimising the risk of loss by maintaining the purchasing power of your investment. So, if you are risk averse or you will need money from your investment soon for children’s education or for building a house or you are nearing retirement, this should be your objective.
Investors whose aims are to see their investment portfolios increase in real terms over a period of time are better suited for capital appreciation as an objective. This is better for investors that are more risk tolerant and those with more potential to recoup on losses along the way.
If you are already retired or nearing retirement, and therefore depend on your retirement plan supplemented by investment income, you need an investment that generates income rather than capital gains. In that case, your investment objective should be current income generation. It is always good to have investment goals stated in terms of risk and returns.
Decide on asset allocation
Armed with the knowledge of your risk appetite and investment objective, you are now ready to decide on what to invest in, and how much to invest in any asset class. This takes you to asset allocation decisions. Asset allocation involves dividing an investment portfolio among different asset classes based on an investor’s financial requirements, investment objectives and risk tolerance.
A right mix of asset classes in a portfolio provides an investor with the highest probability of meeting his/her investment objectives. Asset allocation is the most important investment decision an investor can make in a portfolio because it demonstrates an investor’s understanding of his or her risk preferences and return expectations.
It is good to strive for a diversified portfolio. Unfortunately, the Nigerian market does not provide a lot of asset classes for optimal diversification, but diversification can be achieved across sectors or industries within the few asset classes in the Nigerian stock market.
Decide on how to invest
There are different ways to invest in the capital market. You can invest directly by making the stock selections by yourself, thanks to the online stock trading platforms that abound the world over. This implies that you have what it takes to conduct the required research and analysis of the companies whose shares or stocks you wish to buy.
[Read Also: How I Would Invest My Mother’s Retirement Funds]
It also implies that you have what it takes to know when to sell or add to existing positions. Another method is to have someone “do the heavy lifting” for you. In this case, that someone, often times called fund manager or portfolio manager, does the research and analysis and selects shares that suit your investment preferences, investment objectives, risk tolerance and appetite as well as your investment time horizon.
This route is most suitable for investors that lack the knowledge and time for the required research and analysis. If you decide to go this route, mutual funds are the best bet for you.
Nairametrics | Company Earnings
Access our Live Feed portal for the latest company earnings as they drop.
- Friesland Campina Wamco Nigeria Plc announces AGM, proposes dividend of N6.74 per share.
- ETI appoints Akin Dada as Group Executive, Corporate & Investment banking.
- Union Homes REIT proposes final dividend worth N465.03 million for shareholders.
- GT Bank Plc holds FY 2020 investors presentation.
- Cornerstone Insurance Plc notifies stakeholders of late submission of financial statements.