There is a saying: the first generation builds, the second generation manages, the third generation destroys.
So far, the founders and key investors of some listed companies have been able to pass the reins to the next generation, and in the process, retained their fortunes.
Time will tell though if they can successfully pass the baton to the third generation.
Here is a list of some dynasties on the Exchange and how they are faring succession-wise.
Dangote Family: The Dangote Group
A billionaire list in Nigeria would be incomplete without of Aliko Dangote. Nigeria and Africa’s richest man, Dangote has often expressed his belief in handing over the reins to the next generation.
Dangote’s stake in Dangote Cement Plc is worth over N2.8 trillion, as he holds 85% through Dangote Industries Limited (DIL). DIL also holds stakes in Dangote Sugar, Dangote Flour Mills and NASCON Allied Industries Plc.
Daughters, Halima and Fatima, play key parts in the group. Halima is an Executive Director at Dangote Flour Mills, while Fatima is an Executive Director at NASCON Allied Industries.
The Balogun family: FCMB Group Plc
FCMB was established in 1982 as a merchant bank but began operations in August 1983. The bank was given a universal banking licence in 2000 and changed its name from First City Merchant Bank to First City Monument Bank. In 2004, the bank was converted to a public limited liability company and listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) in December that year.
The group currently consists of FCMB Capital Markets Limited, CSL Trustees Limited, FCMB Microfinance Bank Limited, CSL Stockbrokers Limited (including its subsidiary First City Asset Management Ltd), First City Monument Bank Limited (including its subsidiaries: Credit Direct Limited, FCMB (UK) Limited and FCMB Financing SPV Plc) and 88.22% of Legacy Pension Managers Limited.
FCMB was founded by Subomi Balogun, who had to resign from the company in 2004. Ladi, his son is currently the Group Chief Executive Officer. Gboyega Balogun, another son, is the Managing Director of CSL Stockbrokers Limited.
The Dozie family: Diamond Bank Plc
Diamond Bank was founded in 1990 by Pascal Dozie, the patriarch who has since handed over the reins to his son, Uzoma. The Dozie family has a 14% stake in the bank, valued at N2.7 billion as at today’s market price.
While the bank has been in the news in the last few weeks due to rumours of an acquisition, it has been one of the few family-owned banks still standing.
The Makanjuola family: Caverton Offshore Support Group Plc
Caverton Offshore Support Group Plc was incorporated in Nigeria as a private limited liability company on June 2, 2008, and became a public limited liability company on July 4, 2008.
The principal activity of the Group is the provision of offshore services to the oil and gas industry. It commenced business on July 1, 2008.
While the group was founded by Aderemi Makanjuola, his son, Bode, has since expanded it to include Caverton Helicopters. However, the family continues to maintain a key stake (over 50%) through Makanjuola’s personal holdings and a holding vehicle, Tasmania Investments Limited.
Dele Fajemirokun and family: AIICO Insurance Plc
AIICO commenced operations in Nigeria in 1963 as an Agency office of American Life Insurance Company (“ALICO”) – at the time, a subsidiary of American International Group (“AIG”).
The company was incorporated, registered and licensed in Nigeria as American Life Insurance Company Limited, as a wholly owned subsidiary of ALICO/AIG in 1970 to offer Life and Pension products and insurance services.
It was renamed American International Insurance Company Limited (“AIICO”) upon the acquisition of a 60% stake by the Federal Government of Nigeria and later listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange in 1990, after which both shareholders – the Federal Government of Nigeria and AIG–divested.
The company has a market capitalization of N4.5 billion, with the family holding over 50% of the company’s issued shares, through several investment vehicles.
The Fajemirokun family, in some ways, represents one of the closest examples of wealth that could potentially move through three generations successfully.
Henry Stephen Fajemirokun, the founding patriarch, died suddenly, leaving the reins in the hands of his son, Dele Fajemirokun. Dele then chaired AIICO for several years before resigning.
He, however, continues to retain a key stake in the company through his investment vehicle, DF Holdings. Babatunde, his son, is currently an Executive Director. Adenike, his daughter, is a Group Executive Director at the Dangote Group.
The Ibru family: Ikeja Hotels Plc
While the Ibru family may be popularly associated with the defunct Ocean bank, (and for the older generation, fish and jetty importation) several branches of the family also hold shares in Ikeja Hotel Plc, largely run by Goodie Minabo Ibru for over two decades.
The Ibru family through their various investment vehicles own at least 30% of the company valued at N2.4 billion at current market price.
A tussle between himself and other factions in the company (including the other branches of the Ibru family) led to several court cases.
Goodie eventually stepped down in February last year citing the need for the new generation of Ibrus to take over.
That new generation comprises his son Ufuoma Ibru and Toke Alex-Ibru, son of Maiden Ibru and late Guardian publisher Alex Ibru.
Ikeja Hotels remains thriving, an indication the company and the Ibrus will be key players for a while.
The Otudeko family: FBN Holdings & Honeywell Group
Another former President of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, Otudeko is a billionaire by virtue of his stake in FBN Holdings, as well as Honeywell Flour Mills (part of the Honeywell Group which he founded).
Otudeko’s (directly and indirectly) owns about 67% of Honeywell Flour, valued at over N5.5 billion.
Otudeko’s son and namesake, Obafemi Ademola Otudeko, is also following in his footstep. Otudeko junior is the Executive Director at Honeywell Group and a director of First Bank of Nigeria Plc.
Ademola was also a billionaire, prior to the stock market dip which led to a fall in the company’s share price.
DEVALUATION: CBN updates website to official rate of N360/$1
The central bank of Nigeria has devalued its official exchange rate from N307/$1 to N360/$1.
Just as Nairametrics reported, the Central Bank of Nigeria has devalued its official exchange rate from N307/$1 to N360/$1. The apex bank has now reflected this change on its website signaling a confirmation. The bank is yet to issue a press release to this effect.
The CBN has now officially devalued by 15% moving from N307/$1 to N360/$1. Depreciation at the “market-determined” I&E window is 5% having moved from N360/$1 to N380/$1
Devaluation: Nairametrics reported yesterday that the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) sold dollars to banks at N380/$1 in a move signifying a devaluation of the currency. Banks trading at the Investor and Exporter (I&E) window bought dollars at N360/$1 from the CBN on Friday, March 20, 2020. The I&E window is the official market where forex is traded between banks, the CBN, foreign investors, and businesses. The central bank typically buys or sells in the market as part of its intervention program.
Nairametrics also got hold of a letter from the CBN to banks informing them of the new exchange rate for dollars flowing from the International Money Transfer Operators (IMTOs). According to the CBN, IMTOs will sell to banks at N376/$1 while banks will sell to the CBN at N377/$1. The CBN will sell to BDC’s at N378/$1 while the BDC’s will sell to end-users at “no more than” N380/$1.
Single Exchange Rate: A report yesterday also suggested that the CBN also planned to move to a single exchange rate policy for determining the price of the dollar. A senior central bank official who does not want to be identified, said, ‘Today we allowed the rate at the importer and exporters (I&E) window to adjust in response to market developments.’
The central bank has now made an apparent u-turn after it had initially that the “market fundamentals do not support naira devaluation at this time” detailing reasons why it did not need to devalue.
Falling oil price: Oil prices fell to under $20 on Friday before climbing back up to settle at $23 per barrel. Nigeria’s Bonny light trades at $26 while the benchmark Brent crude trades at $29 per barrel. In response to the crash in oil price, Nigeria’s announced a cut to its 2020 budget by N1.5 trillion as it faced the reality of a potential drop in its revenues. Nairametrics also has information that state governments are getting jittery about their ability to sustain salary payments as a reduction in their federal allocation “FAAC” is anticipated.
Investment options for salary earners
Investment options for the salary earners
#Investing #Entrepreneurs #Investment #Salary #Wages
Recently, one of the readers of my articles asked to know what investment options are open to salary earners. A salaried individual is like everyone else except that he or she has a fixed monthly income. This implies that their investments and expenses have to be managed strictly according to their fixed monthly income.
Since salary is assumed to be the only source of income for the salaried, it is advisable that such an individual fortify himself financially before investing so that adverse investment performance will not have untold effect on him and his family. Therefore, if you are a salaried prospective investor, you need to:
Get life insurance
Most families in Nigeria are single income families so much such that if anything bad happens to the income earner, the family gets shattered, at least financially. Again, given the risks inherent in capital market investments, it is only prudent to have a life insurance as a first step in one’s investment journey. It is very baffling to see many investors very deep into the market, yet they do not have life insurance.
[Read Also: Understanding the risks in bond investing]
Life insurance is and should be a basic part of any financial plan. Life insurance is a protection for loved ones against financial hardship arising from the death of a breadwinner. This is even more important today than ever before with high cost of funeral expenses, college education and medical bills. So, the first investment option for a salaried individual is to get a life insurance.
Prepare for financial emergencies
Life is full of surprises, emergencies do happen, jobs are lost without notices, and even good investment opportunities emerge sometimes suddenly. There is, therefore, the need for a cash reserve to help weather the financial storms and emergencies when they come calling.
Cash reserves do not only provide for emergencies, they also help to ensure that investments are not liquidated prematurely or at inopportune times to cover unexpected expenses. There are no hard and fast rules on what the exact amount of the required cash reserve should be, but most financial experts and planners will advise that an amount that equals about six months of living expenses be set aside.
So, as a salaried person, your next investment should be to have a cash reserve. A cash reserve should not necessarily be in a savings account or under the mattress; it could be in an interest-bearing money market account, money market mutual funds with low to zero luck-up period or another form of very liquid investment that is readily convertible to cash without loss of value.
[Read Also: Understanding the risks in bond investing]
Know your risk appetite
As a salaried and fixed income individual, your risk appetite is most likely going to be low as well as your risk tolerance, although your extended family profile could change all that. You need to know or understand your risk tolerance before you engage in any capital market investment.
Your risk tolerance will and should drive the type of investments you go into. Your risk tolerance depends on your psychological makeup, your current insurance coverage, presence or absence of cash reserve, family situation, and your age among others.
Talking about family situation, it is reasonable to think that a married individual whose children are still in school will be more risk averse than an unmarried person. On the other hand, older people have shorter investment time horizon within which to make up for any losses. the reason for this is because the older you get the less time you have to work to recoup on losses.
In that case the risk tolerance of an older man will be less than those for younger folks. Again, the more cash reserve and insurance coverage you have, the more your propensity to take risk. Now having known your risk tolerance based on the underlying factors, you can then define your investment objectives
[Read Also: Important tips on how to profit in a bearish market]
Set your Investment objectives/goals
Having met those essentials above, you are now ready for a serious investment plan or program. A good investment plan starts with investment objectives. Investment objectives are the force that determines what you invest in. Investment objectives range from capital preservation, to capital appreciation and constant income generation.
Capital preservation as an investment objective implies that you, the investor, aim at minimising the risk of loss by maintaining the purchasing power of your investment. So, if you are risk averse or you will need money from your investment soon for children’s education or for building a house or you are nearing retirement, this should be your objective.
Investors whose aims are to see their investment portfolios increase in real terms over a period of time are better suited for capital appreciation as an objective. This is better for investors that are more risk tolerant and those with more potential to recoup on losses along the way.
If you are already retired or nearing retirement, and therefore depend on your retirement plan supplemented by investment income, you need an investment that generates income rather than capital gains. In that case, your investment objective should be current income generation. It is always good to have investment goals stated in terms of risk and returns.
Decide on asset allocation
Armed with the knowledge of your risk appetite and investment objective, you are now ready to decide on what to invest in, and how much to invest in any asset class. This takes you to asset allocation decisions. Asset allocation involves dividing an investment portfolio among different asset classes based on an investor’s financial requirements, investment objectives and risk tolerance.
A right mix of asset classes in a portfolio provides an investor with the highest probability of meeting his/her investment objectives. Asset allocation is the most important investment decision an investor can make in a portfolio because it demonstrates an investor’s understanding of his or her risk preferences and return expectations.
It is good to strive for a diversified portfolio. Unfortunately, the Nigerian market does not provide a lot of asset classes for optimal diversification, but diversification can be achieved across sectors or industries within the few asset classes in the Nigerian stock market.
Decide on how to invest
There are different ways to invest in the capital market. You can invest directly by making the stock selections by yourself, thanks to the online stock trading platforms that abound the world over. This implies that you have what it takes to conduct the required research and analysis of the companies whose shares or stocks you wish to buy.
[Read Also: How I Would Invest My Mother’s Retirement Funds]
It also implies that you have what it takes to know when to sell or add to existing positions. Another method is to have someone “do the heavy lifting” for you. In this case, that someone, often times called fund manager or portfolio manager, does the research and analysis and selects shares that suit your investment preferences, investment objectives, risk tolerance and appetite as well as your investment time horizon.
This route is most suitable for investors that lack the knowledge and time for the required research and analysis. If you decide to go this route, mutual funds are the best bet for you.
Atiku kicks as Buhari spends $3.7 billion in foreign debt service since 2015
The Buhari led government has spent about $3.7 billion in foreign debt service since 2015, one of the highest from any democratically elected government. The highest single-year foreign debt service was in 2006 at $1.79 billion.
About 68% of Nigeria’s foreign-denominated debt servicing is in commercial Eurobonds issues over the last two years. The loans range between 5.1% and 9.2% per annum. Nigeria’s external debt stock stood at $27 billion in June 2019.
Rising debt service: The Buhari administration has so far spent about $1.1 billion in foreign debt service this year. In 2018, the government spent about $1.4 billion in debt service, more than 3 times the $444 million it spent servicing foreign debts in 2017. The rising cost of debt service is a direct attribute of the government’s reliance on foreign loans as a means of funding government expenditure.
Foreign Loans: Nigeria’s fallen revenue following the crash in oil price has allowed President Buhari to rely mainly on foreign loans to fund government expenditure. As of June 2015, Nigeria’s foreign loans were about $10.5 billion mostly made up of multilateral and bilateral loans.
However, by June 2019, total foreign-denominated loans were $27 billion with $10.8 billion made up of Eurobonds. Commercial loans which include Eurobonds and Diaspora bonds make now make up about 42% of total foreign borrowings.
Critics of the government have complained about the government penchant for debts believing that it could put the future of younger Nigerians in jeopardy. Supporters of the government, however, believe the borrowing was necessary to invest in critical sectors of the economy particularly infrastructure.
Recently, Director-General of MAN, Segun Ajayi-Kadir expressed worry about Nigeria’s rising debt.
“….the rising debt profile of Nigeria continues to be a cause for concern, especially the capacity of government to effectively service it and, at the same time, meet the bursting needs and aspiration of the citizenry going forward.”
“Already, our budget projections for 2020 anticipates a debt service sum of 2.45trillion, an amount higher than the 2.14 trillion earmarked for capital expenditure.
“And even though our debt-to-Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ratio, which currently stands at 28 percent, is still below the average in Africa, our revenue-to-GDP ratio remains low.”
The Finance Minister Zainab Ahmed however, believes the current debt profile is sustainable, comparing it to our GDP.
“Currently, Nigeria’s debt is at N25 trillion; that is about $83 billion. And at $83 billion, we are just at 18.99%…so 19% debt to GDP. I hear people say Nigeria has a debt problem. We don’t have a debt problem. What we have is a revenue challenge and the whole of this government is currently working on how to enhance our revenues, to ensure that we meet our obligation to service government as well as to service debt.”
Former Vice President and defeated PDP Presidential aspirant, Atiku Abubakar during the week piled criticism on the government’s borrowing.
“I have said it time and again. The business of government is too serious to be left in the hands of politicians. We must all ask questions because if they throw away the future, it is not going to be their future they are throwing away, it will be all our futures.
“The fact that Nigeria currently budgets more money for debt servicing (N2.7 trillion), than we do on capital expenditure (N2.4 trillion) is already an indicator that we have borrowed more money than we can afford to borrow. And the thing is that debt servicing is not debt repayment. Debt servicing just means that we are paying the barest minimum allowable by our creditors.
What this means: Nigeria’s rising foreign debt profile should be a worry to investors and businesses and must be watched closely. The country’s ability to repay these loans will continue to be harder as it increases especially now that it is costing about 9%. The immediate risk for investors is the exchange rate which could be the first to suffer should the government struggle to repay its loans.