A heat wave has swept through Lagos recently, which is usual for this time of the year.
What is unusual though is that in the year 2016 (some 216 yearsafter electricity was discovered), most residents of this mega city of 22 million plus people have no electricity to cool their homes in response to the biting heat.
The lack of power largely boils down to market failure resulting from bad policies.
Nigeria’s rulers since 1960 (including the current one who had a first stint as President in 1983), have managed to create a situation where millions of citizens demand a product/ service (electricity), are willing to generate power themselves at a higher price (up to N70/kwh) with Generators, but cannot get it supplied to them from their local utilities.
The situation is made worse by the fact that Nigeria sits on 187 trillion scf of gas, one of the largest energy resources in the world.
Where we are today
After the privatization of most of the power chain by the last government, today the country still generates only about 4,000 megawatts and can wheel out (transmit) about 7,000 mw, whereas demand is estimated at close to 20,o00 mw and increasing at 3 – 4 percent per annum as the country’s population grows.
It is obvious that the whole power chain is in need of revamp from the Generating Companies (Gencos), Gas producers, Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN), Distribution Companies (Discos), NERC and NBET.
The handover of 6 PHCN Generating assets to new private sector owners was only the beginning of a long drawn journey fraught with pitfalls as the new owners struggle to undo decades of rot in the electricity sector.
Majority stakes in Gencos located in Geregu (434mw), Ughelli (832mw), Sapele (1,020mw), Shiroro (600mw) and Kainji (760mw) were sold in 2013 to companies including Transcorp, Sahara Power and Forte Oil Plc.
In some ways the Gencos have seen the most progress since privatization with real Capital expenditure being seen.
Transnational Corp. of Nigeria Plc has doubled the output of its acquired Ughelli power plant, from levels they were at pre privatisation from 150 megawatts (MW) to over 338 mw.
Transcorp has also contracted General Electric (GE) to increase the output at the plant -acquired at a cost of $300 million – to 1000 MW.
Sahara Power and Forte have also expanded capacity at their plants from pre-privatisation levels, while new Independent Power Plants (IPPs) are coming on stream such as the Azura-Edo IPP which comprises a 450MW gas fired plant.
The biggest problem and opportunity today with Generation however lies with the 10 NIPPs with a capacity to produce 4,774 MW which are near 70 – 90 percent completion but for which there seems to be no policy from the current government on moving ahead with their privatisation.
Getting the NIPPs right can easily double Nigeria’s production capacity to over 10,000 MW in about 2 years. This would entail this Government moving clearly to restart their privatisation and also freeing up the gas space to enable enough gas get to the plants as they are all gas fired (more on this later).
The Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN) is one of the weaker links in the power supply chain.
Even if Nigeria can double its power generating capacity to over 10,000 MW, TCNs existing transmission system, is only capable of delivering about 7,000MW of generation to the distribution companies (Discos) Trading Points, and is inadequate to meet expected growth with NIPP and various IPP generation projects coming online.
Inadequate maintenance of the transmission network over the years has also resulted in high technical losses on the transmission network.
To make matters worse TCN today is technically insolvent.
The existing MYTO transmission tariffs and billing collections are inadequate for the company to finance its operations according to San Francisco based consulting firm Nexant in a financial assessment of TCN covering the 2011 to 2013 period.
“The company is consistently unable to meet its obligations to suppliers/contractors in compliance with terms of contracts,” Nexant said.
TCN’s Performance in terms of transmission losses deteriorated between 2011 and 2013, increasing from 10.4 percent in 2011 to 12.1 percent in 2012/13, before falling to 8 percent in 2014, according to data from Nexant and NERC.
Non-collection of tariff charges is also a significant recurring problem for TCN.
The Interim Market Rules (pre-TEM) provides for collection of 70 percent for Transmission Service Provider (TSP) and 60 percent for System Operations (SO) and the Market Operations (MO), which are TCNs three separate and interdependent departments.
However, the overall average collection rate in 2013 was around 60 percent. TCN for instance had N36.3 billion in wheeled power revenue billed in 2013 but only collected N22.1 billion from its customers.
TCN made pre-tax losses of N13.7 billion ($88 million) in the 2012/13 with negative operative margin of around 18 percent, based on unaudited financial statements, seen by Nairametrics.
The number of staff employed by TCN increased from 3,334 in 2011 to around 4,210 by end 2013.
The increase in staff numbers was far greater than the growth in wheeled energy and as a result the energy wheeled per staff declined from 8.1GWh in 2011 to 6.9GWh in 2013.
As a result of this TCN spent N13.5 billion on payroll in 2013 but only N3.73 billion on repairs and maintenance.
From the above numbers it can be seen that TCN needs to be urgently privatized and Transmission Decentralised.
TCN is currently owned by Government but has a management contract with Manitoba of Canada.
There are often turf battles between it and the Ministry of Power.
TCN also needs to be able to raise long term bonds in the private markets to boost capex grow its assets and gain from the expected increase in Generating Capacity.
Getting TCN right will mean that the biggest clog in the wheels of Nigeria’s power sector has been solved and transmission can keep up with the growth in generation.
The Government has to begin the process of privatizing TCN to eliminate the bottlenecks hindering its growth. If this is not done the power sector will not be able to deliver electricity to Nigeria as the sector is only as strong as its weakest links.
COVID-19 Update in Nigeria
On the 5th of June 2020, 328 new confirmed cases and 10 deaths were recorded in Nigeria bringing the total confirmed cases recorded in the country to 11,844.
The spread of novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) in Nigeria continues to rise as the latest statistics provided by the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control reveal Nigeria now has 11,844 confirmed cases.
On the 5th of June 2020, 328 new confirmed cases and 10 deaths were recorded in Nigeria.
To date, 11844 cases have been confirmed, 3696 cases have been discharged and 333 deaths have been recorded in 35 states and the Federal Capital Territory having carried out 73,064 tests.
COVID-19 Case Updates- 5th June 2020
- Total Number of Cases – 11,844
- Total Number Discharged – 3,696
- Total Deaths – 333
- Total Tests Carried out – 73,064
The 328 new cases were reported from 14 states- Lagos (121), FCT (70), Bauchi (25), Rivers (18), Oyo (16), Kaduna (15), Gombe (14), Edo (13), Ogun (13), Jigawa (8), Enugu (6), Kano (5), Osun (2), Ondo (2).
The latest numbers bring Lagos state total confirmed cases to 5663, followed by Kano (985), Abuja at 862, Katsina (385), Edo (364), Kaduna (335), Oyo (334), Ogun (329), Borno (322), Rivers (308), Jigawa (282), Bauchi (281), Gombe (184), Kwara (127).
Delta State has recorded 116 cases, Sokoto (115), Plateau (113), Nasarawa (90), Ebonyi (80), Zamfara (76), Yobe (52), Osun (49), Imo (47), Akwa Ibom (45), Adamawa (42), Niger (41), Ondo (38), Kebbi (33), Bayelsa and Enugu (30), Ekiti (25), Taraba (18), Abia (15), Benue (13), Anambra (12), while Kogi state has recorded only 3 cases.
Lock Down and Curfew
In a move to combat the spread of the pandemic disease, President Muhammadu Buhari directed the cessation of all movements in Lagos and the FCT for an initial period of 14 days, which took effect from 11 pm on Monday, 30th March 2020.
The movement restriction, which was extended by another two-weeks period, has been partially put on hold with some businesses commencing operations from May 4. On April 27th, 2020, President Muhammadu Buhari declared an overnight curfew from 8 pm to 6 am across the country, as part of new measures to contain the spread of the COVID-19. This comes along with the phased and gradual easing of lockdown measures in FCT, Lagos, and Ogun States, which took effect from Saturday, 2nd May 2020, at 9 am.
|Date||Confirmed case||New cases||Total deaths||New deaths||Total recovery||Active cases||Critical cases|
|June 5, 2020||11844||328||333||10||3696||7815||7|
|June 4, 2020||11516||350||323||8||3535||7646||7|
|June 3, 2020||11166||348||315||1||3329||7522||7|
|June 2, 2020||10819||241||314||15||3239||7266||7|
|June 1, 2020||10578||416||299||12||3122||7157||9|
|May 31, 2020||10162||307||287||14||3007||6868||7|
|May 30, 2020||9855||553||273||12||2856||6726||7|
|May 29, 2020||9302||387||261||2||2697||6344||7|
|May 28, 2020||8915||182||259||5||2592||6064||7|
|May 27, 2020||8733||389||254||5||2501||5978||7|
|May 26, 2020||8344||276||249||16||2385||5710||7|
|May 25, 2020||8068||229||233||7||2311||5524||7|
|May 24, 2020||7839||313||226||5||2263||5360||7|
|May 23, 2020||7526||265||221||0||2174||5131||7|
|May 22, 2020||7261||245||221||10||2007||5033||7|
|May 21, 2020||7016||339||211||11||1907||4898||7|
|May 20, 2020||6677||284||200||8||1840||4637||7|
|May 19, 2020||6401||226||192||1||1734||4475||7|
|May 18, 2020||6175||216||191||9||1644||4340||7|
|May 17, 2020||5959||388||182||6||1594||4183||7|
|May 16, 2020||5621||176||176||5||1472||3973||7|
|May 15, 2020||5445||288||171||3||1320||3954||4|
|May 14, 2020||5162||193||168||3||1180||3815||4|
|May 13, 2020||4971||184||164||6||1070||3737||4|
|May 12, 2020||4787||146||158||6||959||3670||4|
|May 11, 2020||4641||242||152||10||902||3589||4|
|May 10, 2020||4399||248||142||17||778||3479||4|
|May 9, 2020||4151||239||127||11||745||3278||4|
|May 8, 2020||3912||386||118||10||679||3115||4|
|May 7, 2020||3526||381||108||4||601||2818||4|
|May 6, 2020||3145||195||104||5||534||2507||1|
|May 5, 2020||2950||148||99||5||481||2370||4|
|May 4, 2020||2802||245||94||6||417||2291||2|
|May 3, 2020||2558||170||88||2||400||2070||2|
|May 2, 2020||2388||220||86||17||351||1952||2|
|May 1, 2020||2170||238||69||10||351||1751||2|
|April 30, 2020||1932||204||59||7||317||1556||2|
|April 29, 2020||1728||196||52||7||307||1369||2|
|April 28, 2020||1532||195||45||4||255||1232||2|
|April 27, 2020||1337||64||41||0||255||994||2|
|April 26, 2020||1273||91||41||5||239||994||2|
|April 25, 2020||1182||87||36||3||222||925||2|
|April 24, 2020||1095||114||33||1||208||855||2|
|April 23, 2020||981||108||32||3||197||753||2|
|April 22, 2020||873||91||29||3||197||648||2|
|April 21, 2020||782||117||26||3||197||560||2|
|April 20, 2020||665||38||23||1||188||466||2|
|April 19, 2020||627||86||22||2||170||436||2|
|April 18, 2020||541||48||20||2||166||356||2|
|April 17, 2020||493||51||18||4||159||317||2|
|April 16, 2020||442||35||13||1||152||277||2|
|April 15, 2020||407||34||12||1||128||267||2|
|April 14, 2020||373||30||11||1||99||263||2|
|April 13, 2020||343||20||10||0||91||242||2|
|April 12, 2020||323||5||10||0||85||228||2|
|April 11, 2020||318||13||10||3||70||238||2|
|April 10, 2020||305||17||7||0||58||240||2|
|April 9, 2020||288||14||7||1||51||230||2|
|April 8, 2020||274||22||6||0||44||226||2|
|April 7, 2020||254||16||6||1||44||204||2|
|April 6, 2020||238||6||5||0||35||198||2|
|April 5, 2020||232||18||5||1||33||194||2|
|April 4, 2020||214||5||4||0||25||185||0|
|April 3, 2020||209||25||4||2||25||180||0|
|April 2, 2020||184||10||2||0||20||162||0|
|April 1, 2020||174||35||2||0||9||163||0|
|March 31, 2020||139||8||2||0||9||128||0|
|March 30, 2020||131||20||2||1||8||121||0|
|March 29, 2020||111||22||1||0||3||107||0|
|March 28, 2020||89||19||1||0||3||85||0|
|March 27, 2020||70||5||1||0||3||66||0|
|March 26, 2020||65||14||1||0||2||62||0|
|March 25, 2020||51||7||1||0||2||48||0|
|March 24, 2020||44||4||1||0||2||41||0|
|March 23, 2020||40||10||1||1||2||37||0|
|March 22, 2020||30||8||0||0||2||28||0|
|March 21, 2020||22||10||0||0||1||21||0|
|March 20, 2020||12||4||0||0||1||11||0|
|March 19, 2020||8||0||0||0||1||7||0|
|March 18, 2020||8||5||0||0||1||7||0|
|March 17, 2020||3||1||0||0||0||3||0|
|March 16, 2020||2||0||0||0||0||2||0|
|March 15, 2020||2||0||0||0||0||2||0|
|March 14, 2020||2||0||0||0||0||2||0|
|March 13, 2020||2||0||0||0||0||2||0|
|March 12, 2020||2||0||0||0||0||2||0|
|March 11, 2020||2||0||0||0||0||2||0|
|March 10, 2020||2||0||0||0||0||2||0|
|March 9, 2020||2||1||0||0||0||2||0|
|March 8, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|March 7, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|March 6, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|March 5, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|March 4, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|March 3, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|March 2, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|March 1, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|February 29, 2020||1||0||0||0||0||1||0|
|February 28, 2020||1||1||0||0||0||1||0|
CBN debits banks another N459.7 billion for failure to meet CRR target
Sadly, this move, in addition to similar policies by the CBN, has left many banks cash-strapped and unable to pursue various profitable ventures.
The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) has debited twenty-six banks, including merchant banks, to the tune of N459.7 billion for failure to meet their CRR (Cash Reserve Ratio) obligations. The fresh debit, which Nairametrics reliably gathered occurred yesterday, has left many stakeholders in the banking sector very upset.
The details: Among the banks that were most affected are United Bank for Africa Plc (N82.3 billion), First Bank of Nigeria Ltd (N59.3), Zenith Bank Plc (N50 billion), First City Monument Bank (FCMB) Limited (N45 billion), and Guaranty Trust Bank Plc (N40 billion). The rest of the affected banks can be seen in the table below.
Note that the latest CRR debits are coming barely one month after a lot of banks were collectively debited to the tune of N1.4 trillion for the same reason in April. Between then and now, a lot of other minor CRR debits have occurred. Nairametrics understands that the apex bank now debits banks on a weekly basis.
Some backstory: During the CBN’s Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) meeting that was held last month, committee members voted to retain CRR rate at 27.5%. The rate was increased in January this year from 5% to its current level after the apex bank cited inflationary pressure concerns. What this means, therefore, is that Nigerian banks are required to keep 27.5% of their deposits as CRR with the Central Bank of Nigeria.
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But banks are silently upset: Sadly, this move, in addition to similar policies by the CBN, has left many banks cash-strapped and unable to pursue various profitable ventures. While reacting to the latest development, a banker who refused to be identified, said:
“What we’ve seen in recent times is that the CBN just indiscriminately debits banks, usually towards the stale-end of every week. They will look at your bank account and if your liquidity is plenty, they will debit you.
“You know the central bank also does what we call retail FX intervention, that is when they sell FX to corporates. Now, because they don’t want banks coming with huge demands, what they do is that a day before the FX sales, they debit the banks so that the naira you have available is small and you cannot put them under pressure because of your FX demands. That has really been the driver.
“We understand that the central bank had set up a special CRR team that is supposed to monitor banks’ CRR once a month. But now, the team monitors banks’ CRR on a weekly basis. This is why the central bank is effectively debiting banks on a weekly basis. Some weeks ago, they debited some banks about N1.4 trillion. That was one of many. Between that time and now, there have been more debits that have happened. But the debits that are huge/significant are what is troubling the banks. There was a N300 billion that happened about two weeks ago. and then yesterday that was this N459.7 billion that was also debited.
“These are huge amounts that are leaving the banking sector. It’s a squeeze on the banks. A bank like First Bank, for instance, has about N1.4 trillion in CRR with the Central Bank. And there is Zenith Bank with equally as much as N1.5 trillion. These are monies that banks can potentially put in loans at 52% at 30%, or even put in money market instruments at maybe 10%. So, for a shareholder of these banks, this CRR debits are impairing the banks’ ability to increase their earnings because now are not able to use the funds that are legitimately theirs to create money for their shareholders. And the question is that under what framework is the Central Bank choosing to take people’s money?”
Precious metals slump, investors focus on Central Bank’s intervention
Gold fell on Friday morning to $1,717.10. as global investors await the release of Friday’s U.S non-farm payrolls data for May
Spot gold went slightly lower, trading at $1,711.57 per ounce by 4 am local time on Friday morning and gold futures was down to $1,717.10.
“Gold collapsed like a house of cards as investors overlooked civil unrest in the United States and heavily focused on hopes around central bank intervention and economic recovery,” said Lukman Otunuga, senior research analyst at FXTM.
Gold fall on Friday morning also came as global investors await the release of Friday’s U.S (United States.) non-farm payrolls data for May, scheduled to be released at 1.30 pm Nigerian local time.
“There are quite a few market participants still bargain-hunting gold given the fundamental backdrop of the coronavirus crisis and ongoing recession,” Julius Baer analyst Carsten Menke said.
However, investors are still waiting to see whether the easing of restrictions will lead to a second wave of infections, supporting demand for gold, Menke added.
What you need to know about Precious metals: Precious metals include gold, silver, and platinum. Gold and silver are the most popular metals, and have been used by jewelers, and as wealth status symbols since ancient times. Global investors use precious metals to hedge against inflation.
Meanwhile, palladium gained 0.34% to $1,947 an ounce, while platinum lost 0.31% to $833.91. Silver was down 0.63% to $17.9 4am local time, having hit a more than three-month high of $18.36 on Monday.
“Some people are buying silver just because it’s much cheaper than gold (or) platinum,” a trader from Tokyo-based retailer Tokuriki Honten said.