Connect with us
Gage

Currencies

What I’ll do if I was CBN Governor – Experts

“As a nation, we cannot afford to continue relying on the world for our food, education, and healthcare.”  said Godwin Emefiele.

Published

on

diaspora remittances, Total credit to the economy rose to N19.54trillion – CBN Governor, CRR debits, P-AADS, #EndSARS: CBN says funds in frozen accounts may be linked to terrorist activities, Covid-19: Court closures impacted revenue generation for courts - Emefiele, P&ID dispute: UK Court orders $200 million guarantee to FG, Leaked letter by Poultry Farmers Association triggered CBN emergency approval to import maize, nImplications of CBN's latest devaluation and FX unification, current account deficit, IMF, COVID-19, CBN OMO ban could give stocks a much-needed boost , CBN’s N132.56 billion T-bills auction records oversubscription by 327% , Nigeria pays $1.09 billion to service external debt in 9 months , Implications of the new CBN stance on treasury bill sale to individuals, Digital technology and blockchain altering conventional banking models - Emefiele  , Increasing food prices might erase chances of CBN cutting interest rate   , Customer complaint against excess/unauthorized charges hits 1, 612 - CBN , CBN moves to reduce cassava derivatives import worth $600 million  , Invest in infrastructural development - CBN Governor admonishes investors , Credit to government declines, as Credit to private sector hits N25.8 trillion, CBN sets N10 billion minimum capital for Mortgage firms, CBN sets N10 billion minimum capital for Mortgage firms , Why you should be worried about the latest drop in external reserves, CBN, Alert: CBN issues N847.4 billion treasury bills for Q1 2020 , PMI: Nigeria’s manufacturing sector gains momentum in November, CBN warns high foreign credits could collapse Nigeria’s economy, predicts high poverty, MPC Member, BVN, Fitch, Foreign excchange (Forex), Overnight rates crash after CBN’s N1.4 trillion deduction, Nigeria’s foreign reserves hit $36.57 billion; Emefiele keeps his word on defending the naira, CBN to support maize farmers, projects 12.5 million metric tons in 18 months, BREAKING: CBN Upscales Greenwich Trust Limited, grants it's operational license for merchant banking, AGSMEIS: CBN expand beneficiaries to 14,638., CBN expands access to mortgage financing

“What if the COVID-19 onslaught continues in a second wave? For how long shall we continue to rely on the world for anything and everything at every time?” said Godwin Emefiele, Nigeria’s Central Bank governor. He added, “As a nation, we cannot afford to continue relying on the world for our food, education, and healthcare.” 

In keeping with his vow to run Nigeria’s Central Bank effectively by supporting economic growth and the developmental necessity for Nigeria, Godwin Emefiele has made sure Nigeria’s Central Bank becomes an important driver of growth to Nigeria’s economy

Nairametrics interviewed investment bankers and financial experts asking for their opinions on what policies they would implement if they were the helm of CBN.

Their responses were as interesting as they were varied ranging from diversifying the economy, adjusting the value of the naira to fighting inflation

(READ MORE:Naira appreciates to N450/$ in parallel market, as CBN intervenes)

Specta

CBN sets N650,000 as accreditation fee for personalised cheques, Managing Nigeria’s Central Bank, experts offer insights

Anthony Okafor, Ph.D. Head, Investments & Strategy at Vyne Investment Partners

The Nigerian economy requires an economic vaccine to stimulate the economy and combat the impending recession. The turbulence in the global markets caused by the pandemic and the decline in crude oil prices has accelerated the risk levels in the Nigerian financial system. Monetary policy efforts need to be targeted at sustaining the economy through this cycle.

The aggregate money supply in the economy needs to be elevated via a combination of conventional and non-conventional cash injection measures, including a significant reduction in cash reserve ratios to salvage the economy.

Coronation ads

Concerns about inflation may have to be subordinated to allow for productivity and a chance to restart the economy. The CBN’s 50 billion naira fund for households and small businesses is commendable; however, more of such funds would be needed in the coming weeks.

The economy has struggled to recover after the 2014 oil price shock, implying that effective policy measures need to be activated, including the injection of further stimulus packages to support the real sector. The economy has lost over 70% of its revenue, fiscal and monetary authorities might be looking at intervention funds between $50 billion to $70 billion in the next three years.

The earlier $22.7 billion borrowings put on hold needs to be revisited to fund this intervention as opposed to a seasonal devaluation of the naira.

Devaluing the currency is not a magic wand, and currency devaluation as a means of addressing revenue shocks is merely a race to the bottom.

Coronation ads

(READ MORE:Nigeria’s food security, GDP growth hinge on financial inclusion of farmers)

Stanbic IBTC

Central Bank of Nigeria, Managing Nigeria’s Central Bank, experts offer insights

Jaiz bank ads

Omeiza Makoju, ACCA, energy expert with Nigeria’s leading oil firm.

“Never let a good crisis go to waste.” This quote has been attributed to Winston Churchill and applies to us at this dire time. In a Nigerian context, the COVID-19 pandemic, dwindling oil prices, and the consequential economic crisis we currently face provides us with a rare opportunity to take drastic measures to address our problems as a nation.

These will be bitter pills to swallow at this time but the crisis has made it easier for our leaders to administer the pills. At the helm of the CBN (Central Bank of Nigeria), Mr. Godwin Emefiele has taken several commendable steps to stimulate sustainable economic growth at this trying time.

The most notable is the plan to inject N3.5T stimulus into the economy in the form of various interventions. Another notable move was the adjustment of the exchange rate in response to “market fundamentals.”

The question as to how well these steps will improve the lives of the average Nigerian still begs to be answered. Putting myself in the shoes of the CBN (Central Bank of Nigeria) governor at this time, I would devalue the Naira and put more emphasis on improving the rate of financial inclusion in Nigeria.

(READ MORE:CBN, Bankers’ Committee order banks not to lay-off any staff)

Taking these drastic actions will be as bold and as progressive as those taken by Mele Kyari, NNPC (Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation) GMD, in removing the fuel subsidies from every Nigerians pocket.

app

These will certainly be difficult to contend with and will be fraught with political controversy as was the removal of fuel subsidies. Naira Devaluation The devaluation will be hard on us in the short-run but with the right monetary policies put in place by the CBN to support the vision; the temporary difficulty will lead to sustainable economic growth for our nation in the long-run.

Financial Inclusion Coincidentally, the CBN had set a target to achieve 80% financial inclusion in Nigeria this year, 2020.

But EFInA reported in February this year that it is unlikely that this target will be met due to demographic changes. Interestingly, the subscriber records of the NCC (Nigerian Communications Commission) show a teledensity of over 98% (a population estimate of 190 million was used) as at February 2020.

Looking at all this information together reveals a compelling opportunity for the CBN to cut red tape and work closely with relevant stakeholders to do much more in leveraging technology to achieve their financial inclusion target.

The current business realities of social distancing, working remotely and the unprecedented dependence on technology during this pandemic also supports this financial inclusion strategy. No matter what happens, our outstanding resilience as Nigerians will see us through.

(READ MORE:Official: CBN says N360/$1 not devaluation but “adjustment of price”)

 

Princejoe Nnaji Corporate Strategy Analyst at Nigeria’s top tier-1 bank.

As the CBN governor, I will pursue policies that support the exportation of goods and services that are essential to diversify the Nigerian economy. The goal is to increase revenue generation which would drive sustainable growth and increase our external reserves.

The policies should be aimed at encouraging the local processing of raw materials to semi-finished form or finished form in the medium or long term respectively instead of exporting raw materials without any value add. This, in turn, will generate more value, boost local production, create employment, and increase investment in the infrastructure sector which is a key driver of GDP growth.

These policies cannot be introduced in isolation because there is a need to create a conducive business environment to aid these businesses to thrive. Along with ease of getting credit, the Central Bank of Nigeria will need to co-ordinate with the government across all levels to sustain the gains on the World Bank’s ease of doing business ranking (currently ranked 131 among 190 economies).

READ ALSO: Covid-19: SBM Intel lists out industries that may be out of business post Coronavirus

Emmanuel Emeka Orji Emerging and Frontier Markets | Fixed Income | Comercio Partners

Whilst the move to unify and eliminate the multiple exchange rate regime promised to the IMF is very much welcomed and a step in the right direction, the CBN still needs to intensify its efforts by adopting some other tactics in the bid to save the Nigerian economy.

(READ MORE:Just-in: CBN Governor guarantees investors over forex repatriation)

Furthermore, whilst a low-interest environment may be good for the local manufacturing and real sector, we believe our interest rates are significantly low compared to our peers in the Sub Saharan African region, therefore, putting Nigeria at a risk of attracting less FDIs and FPIs.

Nevertheless, given that our economy is largely import driven and a lack of foreign inflow could further put pressure on our external reserves, we believe the CBN needs to continue to find ways to keep our interest rates competitive whilst also continuing the various intervention programs to help grow the real sector and ultimately significantly reduce the reliance on importation

 

Olumide Adesina is a France-born Nigerian. He is a Certified Investment Trader, with more than 15 years of working expertise in Investment trading. Follow Olumide on Twitter @tokunboadesina or email [email protected] He is a Member of the Chartered Financial Analyst Society.

Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Currencies

Daily Parallel Market Exchange Rate – ₦470/$1

The US dollar closed at ₦470/US$1 in the parallel market

Published

on

Forex, NIGERIA: Daily Parallel Market, Exchange Rate

The exchange rate between the naira and the US dollar for today (Friday, January 15th 2021), closed at 470/US$1 in the parallel market. The rate had also closed at 470/US$1 on Thursday, January 14th 2021.

  • Naira:470
  • Dollar: $1
  • Date: January 15th, 2021

The exchange rate between the naira and the British pound sterling closed at ₦625/₤1 on Friday, January 15th 2021. The rate had also closed at ₦625/₤1 on Thursday, January 14th 2021.

  • Naira: ₦625
  • Pounds Sterling: ₤1
  • Date: January 15th, 2021

Explore Economic Research Data From Nairametrics on Nairalytics

The exchange rate between the naira and the European euro closed at ₦570/€1 on Friday, January 15th 2021. The rate had also closed at ₦570/€1 on Thursday, January 14th 2021.

  • Naira: ₦570
  • Euro: €1
  • Date: January 15th, 2021

Activity: US Dollar closed at 470/US$1 in the parallel market

Specta

READ ALSO: The risk of buying Forex at black market rate of N460/$1 

DateCurrencyBuy(AM)Sell(AM)Buy(PM)Sell(PM)Volatility
01/15/2021Dollar465470465470Low
01/15/2021Pounds620625620625Low
01/15/2021Euro565570565570Low
01/14/2021Dollar465470465470Low
01/14/2021Pounds620625620625Low
01/14/2021Euro565570565570Low
01/13/2021Dollar465470465470Low
01/13/2021Pounds620625620625Low
01/13/2021Euro565570565570Low
01/12/2021Dollar460465460465Low
01/12/2021Pounds610615610615Low
01/12/2021Euro560565560565Low
01/11/2021Dollar460465460465Low
01/11/2021Pounds610615610615Low
01/11/2021Euro560565560565Low
01/08/2021Dollar460465460465Low
01/08/2021Pounds610615610615Low
01/08/2021Euro560565560565Low
01/07/2021Dollar460465460465Low
01/07/2021Pounds610615610615Low
01/07/2021Euro560565560565Low
01/06/2021Dollar460465460465Low
01/06/2021Pounds610615610615Low
01/06/2021Euro560565560565Low
01/05/2021Dollar460465460465Low
01/05/2021Pounds610615610615Low
01/05/2021Euro560565560565Low
01/04/2021Dollar460465460465Low
01/04/2021Pounds610615610615Low
01/04/2021Euro560565560565Low
01/01/2021Dollar455460455460Low
01/01/2021Pounds610615610615Low
01/01/2021Euro560565560565Low
12/31/2020Dollar455460455460Low
12/31/2020Pounds610615610615Low
12/31/2020Euro560565560565Low
12/30/2020Dollar455460455460Low
12/30/2020Pounds610615610615Low
12/30/2020Euro560565560565Low
12/29/2020Dollar455460455460Low
12/29/2020Pounds610615610615Low
12/29/2020Euro560565560565Low
12/28/2020Dollar455460455460Low
12/28/2020Pounds610615610615low
12/28/2020Euro560565560565Low
12/25/2020Dollar465470465470Low
12/25/2020Pounds610615610615Low
12/25/2020Euro560565560565Low
12/24/2020Dollar465470465470Low
12/24/2020Pounds610615610615Low
12/24/2020Euro560565560565Low
12/23/2020Dollar465470465470Low
12/23/2020Pounds610615610615Low
12/23/2020Euro560565560565Low
12/22/2020Dollar465470465470Low
12/22/2020Pounds610615610615Low
12/22/2020Euro560565560565Low
12/21/2020Dollar465470465470Low
12/21/2020Pounds610615610615Low
12/21/2020Euro560565560565Low
12/18/2020Dollar465470465470Low
12/18/2020Pounds610615610615Low
12/18/2020Euro560565560565Low
12/17/2020Dollar465470465470Low
12/17/2020Pounds610615610615Low
12/17/2020Euro560565560565Low
12/16/2020Dollar465470465470Low
12/16/2020Pounds610615610615Low
12/16/2020Euro560565560565Low
12/15/2020Dollar465470465470Low
12/15/2020Pounds610615610615Low
12/15/2020Euro560565560565Low
12/14/2020Dollar465470465470Low
12/14/2020Pounds610615610615Low
12/14/2020Euro560565560565Low
12/11/2020 00:00Dollar465470465470Low
12/11/2020 00:00Pounds610615610615Low
12/11/2020 00:00Euro560565560565Low
12/10/2020 00:00Dollar465470465470Low
12/10/2020 00:00Pounds610615610615Low
12/10/2020 00:00Euro560565560565Low
12/09/2020 00:00Dollar470475470475Low
12/09/2020 00:00Pounds605610605610Low
12/09/2020 00:00Euro555560555560Low
12/08/2020 00:00Dollar470475470475Low
12/08/2020 00:00Pounds605610605610Low
12/08/2020 00:00Euro555560555560Low
12/07/2020 00:00Dollar465470465470Low
12/07/2020 00:00Pounds615620615620Low
12/07/2020 00:00Euro555560555560Low
12/04/2020 00:00Dollar465470465470Low
12/04/2020 00:00Pounds615620615620Low
12/04/2020 00:00Euro555560555560Low
12/03/2020 00:00Dollar465470465470Low
12/03/2020 00:00Pounds615620615620Low
12/03/2020 00:00Euro555560555560Low
12/02/2020 00:00Dollar485495485495Low
12/02/2020 00:00Pounds630635630635Low
12/02/2020 00:00Euro570575570575Low
12/01/2020 00:00Dollar485495485495Low
12/01/2020 00:00Pounds630635630635Low
12/01/2020 00:00Euro570575570575Low
11/30/2020Dollar485495485495Low
11/30/2020Pounds630635630635Low
11/30/2020Euro565570565570Low
11/27/2020Dollar485490485490Low
11/27/2020Pounds615620615620Low
11/27/2020Euro565570565570Low
11/26/2020Dollar475480475480Low
11/26/2020Pounds600605600605Low
11/26/2020Euro555560555560Low
11/25/2020Dollar475480475480Low
11/25/2020Pounds600605600605Low
11/25/2020Euro555560555560Low
11/24/2020Dollar475480475480Low
11/24/2020Pounds600605600605Low
11/24/2020Euro555560555560Low
11/23/2020Dollar475480475480Low
11/23/2020Pounds600605600605Low
11/23/2020Euro555560555560Low
11/20/2020Dollar465470465470Low
11/20/2020Pounds600605600605Low
11/20/2020Euro555560555560Low
11/19/2020Dollar465470465470Low
11/19/2020Pounds600605600605Low
11/19/2020Euro555560555560Low
11/18/2020Dollar465470465470Low
11/18/2020Pounds600605600605Low
11/18/2020Euro555560555560Low
11/17/2020Dollar465470465470Low
11/17/2020Pounds600605600605Low
11/17/2020Euro555560555560Low
11/16/2020Dollar455460455460Low
11/16/2020Pounds585590585590Low
11/16/2020Euro535540535540Low
11/13/2020Dollar455460455460Low
11/13/2020Pounds585590585590Low
11/13/2020Euro535540535540Low
11/12/2020 00:00Dollar455460455460Low
11/12/2020 00:00Pounds585590585590Low
11/12/2020 00:00Euro535540535540Low
11/11/2020 00:00Dollar455460455460Low
11/11/2020 00:00Pounds585590585590Low
11/11/2020 00:00Euro535540535540Low
11/10/2020 00:00Dollar457462457462Low
11/10/2020 00:00Pounds583587583587Low
11/10/2020 00:00Euro535540535540Low
11/09/2020 00:00Dollar457462457462Low
11/09/2020 00:00Pounds585590585590Low
11/09/2020 00:00Euro535540535540Low
11/06/2020 00:00Dollar457462457462Low
11/06/2020 00:00Pounds585590585590Low
11/06/2020 00:00Euro535540535540Low
11/05/2020 00:00Dollar457462457462Low
11/05/2020 00:00Pounds585590585590Low
11/05/2020 00:00Euro535540535540Low
11/04/2020 00:00Dollar457462457462Low
11/04/2020 00:00Pounds585590585590Low
11/04/2020 00:00Euro535540535540Low
11/03/2020 00:00Dollar457462457462Low
11/03/2020 00:00Pounds585590585590Low
11/03/2020 00:00Euro535540535540Low
11/02/2020 00:00Dollar457460457460Low
11/02/2020 00:00Pounds585590585590Low
11/02/2020 00:00Euro530535530535Low
10/30/2020Dollar457460457460Low
10/30/2020Pounds585590585590Low
10/30/2020Euro530535530535Low
10/29/2020Dollar457460457460Low
10/29/2020Pounds585590585590Low
10/29/2020Euro530535530535Low
10/28/2020Dollar457460457460Low
10/28/2020Pounds585590585590Low
10/28/2020Euro530535530535Low
10/27/2020Dollar457461457461Low
10/27/2020Pounds585590585590Low
10/27/2020Euro535540535540Low
10/26/2020Dollar457461457461Low
10/26/2020Pounds585590585590Low
10/26/2020Euro535540535540Low
10/23/2020Dollar457461457461Low
10/23/2020Pounds585590585590Low
10/23/2020Euro535540535540Low
10/22/2020Dollar457461457461Low
10/22/2020Pounds585590585590Low
10/22/2020Euro535540535540Low
10/21/2020Dollar456460456460Low
10/21/2020Pounds582593582593Low
10/21/2020Euro535540535540Low
10/20/2020Dollar456460456460Low
10/20/2020Pounds582593582593Low
10/20/2020Euro535540535540Low
10/19/2020Dollar455460455460Low
10/19/2020Pounds583592583592Low
10/19/2020Euro530535530535Low
10/16/2020Dollar455460455460Low
10/16/2020Pounds583592583592Low
10/16/2020Euro530535530535Low
10/15/2020Dollar455460455460Low
10/15/2020Pounds583592583592Low
10/15/2020Euro530535530535Low
10/14/2020Dollar455460455460Low
10/14/2020Pounds585590585590Low
10/14/2020Euro530535530535Low
10/13/2020Dollar453458455460Low
10/13/2020Pounds585590585590Low
10/13/2020Euro530535530535Low
10/12/2020 00:00Dollar452458452458Low
10/12/2020 00:00Pounds580585580585Low
10/12/2020 00:00Euro530535530535Low
10/09/2020 00:00Dollar452457452457Low
10/09/2020 00:00Pounds585590585590Low
10/09/2020 00:00Euro535540535540Low
10/08/2020 00:00Dollar452457452457Low
10/08/2020 00:00Pounds585590585590Low
10/08/2020 00:00Euro535540535540Low
10/07/2020 00:00Dollar452457452457Low
10/07/2020 00:00Pounds585590585590Low
10/07/2020 00:00Euro535540535540Low
10/06/2020 00:00Dollar452457452457Low
10/06/2020 00:00Pounds580585580585Low
10/06/2020 00:00Euro535540535540Low
10/05/2020 00:00Dollar452455452455Low
10/05/2020 00:00Pounds570580570580Low
10/05/2020 00:00Euro540545540545Low
10/02/2020 00:00Dollar460465460465Low
10/02/2020 00:00Pounds575585575585Low
10/02/2020 00:00Euro530540530540Low
10/01/2020 00:00Dollar460465460465Low
10/01/2020 00:00Pounds575585575585Low
10/01/2020 00:00Euro530540530540Low
9/30/2020Dollar460465460465Low
9/30/2020Pounds570580570580Low
9/30/2020Euro530535530535Low
9/29/2020Dollar460465460465Low
9/29/2020Pounds565575570580Low
9/29/2020Euro530535530535Low
9/28/2020Dollar460465460465Low
9/28/2020Pounds565570565570Low
9/28/2020Euro530535530535Low
9/25/2020Dollar460465460465Low
9/25/2020Pounds565575565575Low
9/25/2020Euro535540535540Low
9/24/2020Dollar460465460465Low
9/24/2020Pounds565570565570Low
9/24/2020Euro535540535540Low
9/23/2020Dollar455460455460Low
9/23/2020Pounds580585580585Low
9/23/2020Euro535540535540Low
9/22/2020Dollar455460455460Low
9/22/2020Pounds575585575580Low
9/22/2020Euro530535530535Low
9/21/2020Dollar453455450455Low
9/21/2020Pounds565570565570Low
9/21/2020Euro525530525530Low
9/18/2020Dollar450460450460Low
9/18/2020Pounds575595575595Low
9/18/2020Euro535540535540Low
9/17/2020Dollar455460455460Low
9/17/2020Pounds570580570580Low
9/17/2020Euro530535530535Low
9/16/2020Dollar450460450460Low
9/16/2020Pounds565570565570Low
9/16/2020Euro525530525530Low
9/15/2020Dollar450460450460Low
9/15/2020Pounds565570565570Low
9/15/2020Euro525530525530Low
9/14/2020Dollar445455445455Low
9/14/2020Pounds560575560575Low
9/14/2020Euro515525515525Low
09/11/2020 00:00Dollar450455450455Low
09/11/2020 00:00Pounds555565555565Low
09/11/2020 00:00Euro525530525530Low
09/10/2020 00:00Dollar455460455460Low
09/10/2020 00:00Pounds545560545560Low
09/10/2020 00:00Euro525530525530Low
09/09/2020 00:00Dollar430440430440Low
09/09/2020 00:00Pounds540555540555Low
09/09/2020 00:00Euro500510500510Low
09/08/2020 00:00Dollar435440435440Low
09/08/2020 00:00Pounds540550540550Low
09/08/2020 00:00Euro505515505515Low
09/07/2020 00:00Dollar435440435440Low
09/07/2020 00:00Pounds525530525530Low
09/07/2020 00:00Euro505515505515Low
09/04/2020 00:00Dollar425440425440Low
09/04/2020 00:00Pounds560580560580Low
09/04/2020 00:00Euro505515505515Low
09/03/2020 00:00Dollar425440425440Low
09/03/2020 00:00Pounds560580560580Low
09/03/2020 00:00Euro520535505515High
09/02/2020 00:00Dollar425440425440Low
09/02/2020 00:00Pounds570580560580Low
09/02/2020 00:00Euro535540520535Low
09/01/2020 00:00Dollar462465435440High
09/01/2020 00:00Pounds565575570580Low
09/01/2020 00:00Euro535540535540Low
8/31/2020Dollar463470460465High
8/31/2020Pounds585595580590Low
8/31/2020Euro540545540545Low
8/28/2020Dollar472477472477Low
8/28/2020Pounds580595580595Low
8/28/2020Euro545552545552Low
8/27/2020Dollar472477472477Low
8/27/2020Pounds580590580590Low
8/27/2020Euro542552542552Low
8/26/2020Dollar472477472477Low
8/26/2020Pounds580590580590Low
8/26/2020Euro542552542552Low
8/25/2020Dollar472477472477Low
8/25/2020Pounds575585575585Low
8/25/2020Euro542552542552Low
8/24/2020Dollar473477473477Low
8/24/2020Pounds580590580590Low
8/24/2020Euro542550542550Low
8/21/2020Dollar474477474477Low
8/21/2020Pounds575585575585Low
8/21/2020Euro545550545550Low
8/20/2020Dollar475478473477Low
8/20/2020Pounds575585575585Low
8/20/2020Euro540550540550Low
8/19/2020Dollar475480475480Low
8/19/2020Pounds575585575585Low
8/19/2020Euro540550540550Low
8/18/2020Dollar477480477480Low
8/18/2020Pounds575580575580Low
8/18/2020Euro545550545550Low
8/17/2020Dollar470475470475Low
8/17/2020Pounds580590580590Low
8/17/2020Euro525535525535Low
8/14/2020Dollar470475470475Low
8/14/2020Pounds570580570580Low
8/14/2020Euro525535520535Low
8/13/2020Dollar470475470475Low
8/13/2020Pounds570575565575Low
8/13/2020Euro525530520530Low
08/12/2020 00:00Dollar470475470475Low
08/12/2020 00:00Pounds570575570575Low
08/12/2020 00:00Euro520530520530Low
08/11/2020 00:00Dollar477485477485Low
08/11/2020 00:00Pounds572584572584Low
08/11/2020 00:00Euro510523520535Low
08/10/2020 00:00Dollar477485477485Low
08/10/2020 00:00Pounds572584572584Low
08/10/2020 00:00Euro510523520535High
08/07/2020 00:00Dollar475486475486Low
08/07/2020 00:00Pounds578585578585Low
08/07/2020 00:00Euro536550536550Low
08/06/2020 00:00Dollar470480475486Low
08/06/2020 00:00Pounds575587578585Low
08/06/2020 00:00Euro534545536550Low
08/05/2020 00:00Dollar465475473483Low
08/05/2020 00:00Pounds570580575587Low
08/05/2020 00:00Euro525540532545Low
08/04/2020 00:00Dollar470480470480Low
08/04/2020 00:00Pounds560570560570Low
08/04/2020 00:00Euro520530520530Low
08/03/2020 00:00Dollar470480470480Low
08/03/2020 00:00Pounds560570560570Low
08/03/2020 00:00Euro520530520530Low
7/31/2020Dollar470480470485High
7/31/2020Pounds570582575585Low
7/31/2020Euro500520505520Low
7/30/2020Dollar470490470485High
7/30/2020Pounds550570550580High
7/30/2020Euro495520500525High
7/29/2020Dollar468475467475Low
7/29/2020Pounds575585580590Low
7/29/2020Euro530540530545Low
7/28/2020Dollar469475467475Low
7/28/2020Pounds575593580595Low
7/28/2020Euro550560540550Low
7/27/2020Dollar465473466473Low
7/27/2020Pounds570580575583Low
7/27/2020Euro510520515530Low
7/24/2020Dollar465472464472Low
7/24/2020Pounds570580572582Low
7/24/2020Euro510520505520Low
7/23/2020Dollar460472465472Low
7/23/2020Pounds565575565580Low
7/23/2020Euro510520505520Low
7/22/2020Dollar465472465472Low
7/22/2020Pounds565575560578Low
7/22/2020Euro510525510528Low
7/21/2020Dollar461472462472Low
7/21/2020Pounds560573560575Low
7/21/2020Euro498515500520Low
7/20/2020Dollar460473462473Low
7/20/2020Pounds550570555575Low
7/20/2020Euro495505500510Low
7/17/2020Dollar462470460470Low
7/17/2020Pounds560570558570Low
7/17/2020Euro490500490500Low
7/16/2020Dollar460470460470Low
7/16/2020Pounds558565560570Low
7/16/2020Euro485495485499Low
7/15/2020Dollar455465455470Low
7/15/2020Pounds560565558570Low
7/15/2020Euro485495488498Low
7/14/2020Dollar448462455470Low
7/14/2020Pounds540550557570Low
7/14/2020Euro485495489498Low
7/13/2020Dollar450460448462Low
7/13/2020Pounds540550540550Low
7/13/2020Euro485495485495Low
07/10/2020 00:00Dollar453460458465Low
07/10/2020 00:00Pounds520525550555High
07/10/2020 00:00Euro465467510520High
07/09/2020 00:00Dollar455461455463Low
07/09/2020 00:00Pounds550558550562Low
07/09/2020 00:00Euro495504498505Low
07/08/2020 00:00Dollar455461455461Low
07/08/2020 00:00Pounds550558550558Low
07/08/2020 00:00Euro495504495504Low
07/07/2020 00:00Dollar455461455461Low
07/07/2020 00:00Pounds550558550558Low
07/07/2020 00:00Euro495502495502Low
07/06/2020 00:00Dollar455462455461Low
07/06/2020 00:00Pounds550562547555Low
07/06/2020 00:00Euro495502496502Low
07/03/2020 00:00Dollar455462454461Low
07/03/2020 00:00Pounds548560550560Low
07/03/2020 00:00Euro495505495502Low
07/02/2020 00:00Dollar455462454461Low
07/02/2020 00:00Pounds548560550560Low
07/02/2020 00:00Euro495505495502Low
07/01/2020 00:00Dollar455462455462Low
07/01/2020 00:00Pounds548560548560Low
07/01/2020 00:00Euro495505495505Low
6/30/2020Dollar452460452460Low
6/30/2020Pounds547560547560Low
6/30/2020Euro495505495505Low
6/29/2020Dollar450460450460Low
6/29/2020Pounds547560547560Low
6/29/2020Euro495505495505Low
6/26/2020Dollar452457452460Low
6/26/2020Pounds547557547560Low
6/26/2020Euro490498490502Low
6/25/2020Dollar452457450455Low
6/25/2020Pounds547557547560Low
6/25/2020Euro490498490499Low
6/24/2020Dollar450460450455Low
6/24/2020Pounds545555545555Low
6/24/2020Euro490495488498Low
6/23/2020Dollar450460445455Low
6/23/2020Pounds545555545555Low
6/23/2020Euro490495490495Low
6/22/2020Dollar450455450455Low
6/22/2020Pounds545555545555Low
6/22/2020Euro488498488498Low
6/19/2020Dollar445455445455Low
6/19/2020Pounds540553540553Low
6/19/2020Euro480490480490Low
6/18/2020Dollar445452445452Low
6/18/2020Pounds537550537550Low
6/18/2020Euro475490475490Low
6/17/2020Dollar445452445452Low
6/17/2020Pounds540553537550Low
6/17/2020Euro475490475490Low
6/16/2020Dollar440450445452Low
6/16/2020Pounds540550540553Low
6/16/2020Euro475485475490Low
6/15/2020Dollar440450440450Low
6/15/2020Pounds540550540550Low
6/15/2020Euro475485475485Low
06/12/2020 00:00Dollar440450440450Low
06/12/2020 00:00Pounds538550538550Low
06/12/2020 00:00Euro470485470485Low
06/11/2020 00:00Pounds538550538550Low
06/11/2020 00:00Dollar440450440450Low
06/11/2020 00:00Euro470485470485Low
06/10/2020 00:00Pounds538550540553Low
06/10/2020 00:00Dollar440450445452Low
06/10/2020 00:00Euro470485475490Low
06/09/2020 00:00Pounds538550540550Low
06/09/2020 00:00Dollar440450440450Low
06/09/2020 00:00Euro470485475485Low
06/08/2020 00:00Pounds540550540550Low
06/08/2020 00:00Dollar440450440450Low
06/08/2020 00:00Euro475485475485Low
06/05/2020 00:00Pounds535545535545Low
06/05/2020 00:00Dollar440450440450Low
06/05/2020 00:00Euro460472460472Low
06/04/2020 00:00Pounds530543530543Low
06/04/2020 00:00Dollar440447440447Low
06/04/2020 00:00Euro460470460470Low
06/03/2020 00:00Pounds530540530540Low
06/03/2020 00:00Dollar440445440445Low
06/03/2020 00:00Euro460470460470Low
06/02/2020 00:00Pounds535545535545Low
06/02/2020 00:00Dollar440450440450Low
06/02/2020 00:00Euro460472460472Low
06/01/2020 00:00Pounds530543530543Low
06/01/2020 00:00Dollar440447440447Low
06/01/2020 00:00Euro460470460470Low
5/29/2020Pounds530540530540Low
5/29/2020Dollar440445440445Low
5/29/2020Euro460470460470Low
5/28/2020Pounds535545535545Low
5/28/2020Dollar440450440450Low
5/28/2020Euro460472460472Low
5/27/2020Pounds530543530543Low
5/27/2020Dollar440447440447Low
5/27/2020Euro460470460470Low
5/26/2020Pounds530540530540Low
5/26/2020Dollar440445440445Low
5/26/2020Euro460470460470Low
5/25/2020Pounds535545535545Low
5/25/2020Dollar440450440450Low
5/25/2020Euro460472460472Low
5/22/2020Pounds530543530543Low
5/22/2020Dollar440447440447Low
5/22/2020Euro460470460470Low
5/21/2020Pounds530545530545Low
5/21/2020Dollar450460450460Low
5/21/2020Euro460470460470Low
5/20/2020Pounds530550530550Low
5/20/2020Dollar445460445460Low
5/20/2020Euro450470450470Low
5/19/2020Pounds528540528540Low
5/19/2020Dollar445460445460Low
5/19/2020Euro450465450465Low
5/18/2020Pounds528540528540Low
5/18/2020Dollar445460445460Low
5/18/2020Euro450465450465Low
5/15/2020Pounds530540525535Low
5/15/2020Dollar435450440455Low
5/15/2020Euro450460450465Low
5/14/2020Pounds530540530540Low
5/14/2020Dollar435450435450Low
5/14/2020Euro450460450460Low
5/13/2020Pounds525535525535Low
5/13/2020Dollar430450430450Low
5/13/2020Euro440455440455Low
05/12/2020 00:00Pounds525535525535Low
05/12/2020 00:00Dollar435450435450Low
05/12/2020 00:00Euro445455445455Low
05/11/2020 00:00Pounds510530525535Low
05/11/2020 00:00Dollar430445435445Low
05/11/2020 00:00Euro440450445455Low
05/08/2020 00:00Pounds510530510530Low
05/08/2020 00:00Dollar425437430445Low
05/08/2020 00:00Euro425440440450Low
05/07/2020 00:00Pounds510530510530Low
05/07/2020 00:00Dollar425437425437Low
05/07/2020 00:00Euro425440425440Low
05/06/2020 00:00Pounds510520510520Low
05/06/2020 00:00Dollar425437425437Low
05/06/2020 00:00Euro430450430450Low
05/05/2020 00:00Pounds510525510525Low
05/05/2020 00:00Dollar410430420430Low
05/05/2020 00:00Euro425435425435Low
05/04/2020 00:00Pounds500510510525Low
05/04/2020 00:00Dollar435450410430Low
05/04/2020 00:00Euro430440425435Low
05/01/2020 00:00Pounds500510500510Low
05/01/2020 00:00Dollar435450435450Low
05/01/2020 00:00Euro430445430445Low
4/30/2020Pounds500510500510Low
4/30/2020Dollar435450435450Low
4/30/2020Euro430445430445Low
4/29/2020Pounds500520500520Low
4/29/2020Dollar440460440460Low
4/29/2020Euro450465450465Low
4/28/2020Pounds495510500520Low
4/28/2020Dollar430450440460Low
4/28/2020Euro435450435450Low
4/27/2020Pounds495510495510Low
4/27/2020Dollar430450430450Low
4/27/2020Euro435450435450Low
4/24/2020Pounds490500490500Low
4/24/2020Dollar428450428450Low
4/24/2020Euro430440430440Low
4/23/2020Pounds490500490500Low
4/23/2020Dollar420430420430Low
4/23/2020Euro425435425435Low
4/22/2020Pounds490500490500Low
4/22/2020Dollar420425420430Low
4/22/2020Euro425435425435Low
4/21/2020Pounds490500490500Low
4/21/2020Dollar420430420430Low
4/21/2020Euro425435425435Low
4/20/2020Pounds490500490500Low
4/20/2020Dollar420430420430Low
4/20/2020Euro425435425435Low
4/17/2020Pounds490500490500Low
4/17/2020Dollar420430420430Low
4/17/2020Euro425435425435Low
4/16/2020Pounds490500490500Low
4/16/2020Dollar420430420430Low
4/16/2020Euro425435425435Low
4/15/2020Pounds490500490500Low
4/15/2020Dollar420430420430Low
4/15/2020Euro425435425435Low
4/14/2020Pounds490500490500Low
4/14/2020Dollar420430420430Low
4/14/2020Euro425435425435Low
4/13/2020Pounds490500490500Low
4/13/2020Dollar420430420430Low
4/13/2020Euro425435425435Low
04/10/2020 00:00Pounds490505490505Low
04/10/2020 00:00Dollar420430420430Low
04/10/2020 00:00Euro425435425435Low
04/09/2020 00:00Pounds490505490505Low
04/09/2020 00:00Dollar420430420430Low
04/09/2020 00:00Euro425435425435Low
04/08/2020 00:00Pounds490500490500Low
04/08/2020 00:00Dollar420430420430Low
04/08/2020 00:00Euro425435425435Low
04/07/2020 00:00Pounds490500490500Low
04/07/2020 00:00Dollar420430420430Low
04/07/2020 00:00Euro425435425435Low
04/06/2020 00:00Pounds492497492497Low
04/06/2020 00:00Dollar402412402412Low
04/06/2020 00:00Euro410415410415Low
04/03/2020 00:00Pounds485490492497Low
04/03/2020 00:00Dollar400410402412Low
04/03/2020 00:00Euro410415410415Low
04/02/2020 00:00Pounds485490485490Low
04/02/2020 00:00Dollar400410400410Low
04/02/2020 00:00Euro410415410415Low
04/01/2020 00:00Pounds480485480485Low
04/01/2020 00:00Dollar395400395400Low
04/01/2020 00:00Euro407412407412Low
3/31/2020Pounds480485480485Low
3/31/2020Dollar395400395400Low
3/31/2020Euro407412407412Low
3/30/2020Pounds480485480485Low
3/30/2020Dollar390395395400Low
3/30/2020Euro407412407412Low
3/27/2020Pounds480485480485Low
3/27/2020Dollar385390390395Low
3/27/2020Euro405410407412Low
3/26/2020Pounds480485480485Low
3/26/2020Dollar385390385390Low
3/26/2020Euro405410405410Low
3/25/2020Pounds475480480485Low
3/25/2020Dollar380385385390Low
3/25/2020Euro400405405410Low
3/24/2020Pounds475480475480Low
3/24/2020Dollar380385380385Low
3/24/2020Euro400405400405Low
3/23/2020Pounds474478474478Low
3/23/2020Dollar380385380385Low
3/23/2020Euro400403400403Low
3/20/2020Pounds475480475480Low
3/20/2020Dollar370375365367Low
3/20/2020Euro395400395400Low
3/19/2020Pounds475480475480Low
3/19/2020Dollar370375370375Low
3/19/2020Euro395400395400Low
3/18/2020Pounds471475471475Low
3/18/2020Dollar370375370375Low
3/18/2020Euro390395390395Low
3/17/2020Pounds470475470475Low
3/17/2020Dollar375380375380Low
3/17/2020Euro400403400403Low
3/16/2020Pounds470475470475Low
3/16/2020Dollar370375370375Low
3/16/2020Euro400403400403Low
3/13/2020Pounds470475470475Low
3/13/2020Dollar372377372377Low
3/13/2020Euro400403400403Low
03/12/2020 00:00Pounds475485490495High
03/12/2020 00:00Dollar365380375404High
03/12/2020 00:00Euro405412410420Low
03/11/2020 00:00Pounds470475475485Low
03/11/2020 00:00Dollar360366365375Low
03/11/2020 00:00Euro387403405412Low
03/10/2020 00:00Pounds468472470475Low
03/10/2020 00:00Dollar358360360362Low
03/10/2020 00:00Euro390398387403Low
03/09/2020 00:00Pounds468472468472Low
03/09/2020 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
03/09/2020 00:00Euro392398392398Low
03/06/2020 00:00Pounds468472468472Low
03/06/2020 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
03/06/2020 00:00Euro390398390398Low
03/05/2020 00:00Pounds468472468472Low
03/05/2020 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
03/05/2020 00:00Euro390397390397Low
03/04/2020 00:00Pounds468473468473Low
03/04/2020 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
03/04/2020 00:00Euro387392387392Low
03/03/2020 00:00Pounds468472468472Low
03/03/2020 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
03/03/2020 00:00Euro387392387392Low
03/02/2020 00:00Pounds468472468472Low
03/02/2020 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
03/02/2020 00:00Euro387392387392Low
2/28/2020Pounds468472468472Low
2/28/2020Dollar358360358360Low
2/28/2020Euro387392387392Low
2/27/2020Pounds467471468472Low
2/27/2020Dollar358360358360Low
2/27/2020Euro386390387392Low
2/26/2020Pounds468472467471Low
2/26/2020Dollar358360358360Low
2/26/2020Euro386390386390Low
2/25/2020Pounds467472468472Low
2/25/2020Dollar358360358360Low
2/25/2020Euro388392386390Low
2/24/2020Pounds467472467472Low
2/24/2020Dollar358360358360Low
2/24/2020Euro388392388393Low
2/21/2020Pounds467473468473Low
2/21/2020Dollar358360358360Low
2/21/2020Euro388392388392Low
2/20/2020Pounds467473467473Low
2/20/2020Dollar358360358360Low
2/20/2020Euro388392388392Low
2/19/2020Pounds467473467473Low
2/19/2020Dollar358360358360Low
2/19/2020Euro390394390394Low
2/18/2020Pounds467473467473Low
2/18/2020Dollar358360358360Low
2/18/2020Euro390394390394Low
2/17/2020Pounds469473467474Low
2/17/2020Dollar358360358360Low
2/17/2020Euro390394390394Low
2/14/2020Pounds469473469473Low
2/14/2020Dollar358360358360Low
2/14/2020Euro390394390394Low
2/13/2020Pounds470475470475Low
2/13/2020Dollar358360358360Low
2/13/2020Euro390396390396Low
02/12/2020 00:00Pounds470475470475Low
02/12/2020 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
02/12/2020 00:00Euro390396390396Low
02/11/2020 00:00Pounds470475470475Low
02/11/2020 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
02/11/2020 00:00Euro390396390396Low
02/10/2020 00:00Pounds470475470475Low
02/10/2020 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
02/10/2020 00:00Euro390396390396Low
02/07/2020 00:00Pounds471475471475Low
02/07/2020 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
02/07/2020 00:00Euro390396392396Low
02/06/2020 00:00Pounds473476473476Low
02/06/2020 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
02/06/2020 00:00Euro392397392397Low
02/05/2020 00:00Pounds473476473476Low
02/05/2020 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
02/05/2020 00:00Euro393397393397Low
02/04/2020 00:00Pounds473476473476Low
02/04/2020 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
02/04/2020 00:00Euro393397393397Low
02/03/2020 00:00Pounds473476473476Low
02/03/2020 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
02/03/2020 00:00Euro393397393397Low
1/31/2020Pounds473476473476Low
1/31/2020Dollar358360358360Low
1/31/2020Euro393397393397Low
1/30/2020Pounds472478472476Low
1/30/2020Dollar358361358360Low
1/30/2020Euro394398394398Low
1/29/2020Pounds472476472476Low
1/29/2020Dollar358360358360Low
1/29/2020Euro394398394398Low
1/28/2020Pounds472476472476Low
1/28/2020Dollar358360358360Low
1/28/2020Euro394398394398Low
1/27/2020Pounds473476473476Low
1/27/2020Dollar358360358360Low
1/27/2020Euro394398394398Low
1/24/2020Pounds474478474478Low
1/24/2020Dollar358362358362Low
1/24/2020Euro395400395400Low
1/23/2020Pounds474478474478Low
1/23/2020Dollar358362358362Low
1/23/2020Euro395400395400Low
1/22/2020Pounds474478474478Low
1/22/2020Dollar359362359362Low
1/22/2020Euro394398394398Low
1/21/2020Pounds473477475479Low
1/21/2020Dollar360362359362Low
1/21/2020Euro395400395400Low
1/20/2020Pounds473477473477Low
1/20/2020Dollar360362360362Low
1/20/2020Euro395400395400Low
1/17/2020Pounds473477473477Low
1/17/2020Dollar360362360362Low
1/17/2020Euro395400395400Low
1/16/2020Pounds457480474477Low
1/16/2020Dollar360362360362Low
1/16/2020Euro397403395400Low
1/15/2020Pounds475480475480Low
1/15/2020Dollar360362360362Low
1/15/2020Euro397402397402Low
1/14/2020Pounds470475474480Low
1/14/2020Dollar359362360362Low
1/14/2020Euro397402397400Low
1/13/2020Pounds470477470475Low
1/13/2020Dollar359362359362Low
1/13/2020Euro397403397402Low
01/10/2020 00:00Pounds470475470475Low
01/10/2020 00:00Dollar359362359362Low
01/10/2020 00:00Euro397402397402Low
01/09/2020 00:00Pounds470475470475Low
01/09/2020 00:00Dollar359362359362Low
01/09/2020 00:00Euro397403397403Low
01/08/2020 00:00Pounds470475470475Low
01/08/2020 00:00Dollar359362359362Low
01/08/2020 00:00Euro397403397403Low
01/07/2020 00:00Pounds470477470477Low
01/07/2020 00:00Dollar359362359362Low
01/07/2020 00:00Euro397403397403Low
01/06/2020 00:00Pounds468473470477Low
01/06/2020 00:00Dollar359362359362Low
01/06/2020 00:00Euro392400397403Low
01/03/2020 00:00Pounds468473468473Low
01/03/2020 00:00Dollar359362359362Low
01/03/2020 00:00Euro390400390400Low
01/02/2020 00:00Pounds467473467473Low
01/02/2020 00:00Dollar359362359362Low
01/02/2020 00:00Euro392400392400Low
12/24/2019Pounds468474468474Low
12/24/2019Dollar358361358361Low
12/24/2019Euro390395390395Low
12/23/2019Pounds474478474478Low
12/23/2019Dollar359362359362Low
12/23/2019Euro395400395400Low
12/20/2019Pounds474480474480Low
12/20/2019Dollar359363359363Low
12/20/2019Euro395401395401Low
12/19/2019Pounds472480472480Low
12/19/2019Dollar359363359363Low
12/19/2019Euro395401395401Low
12/18/2019Pounds472480472480Low
12/18/2019Dollar360363359363Low
12/18/2019Euro395400395400Low
12/17/2019Pounds470477472477Low
12/17/2019Dollar360363360363Low
12/17/2019Euro394398394398Low
12/16/2019Pounds470475470477Low
12/16/2019Dollar359363360363Low
12/16/2019Euro394398394398Low
12/13/2019Pounds470480470476Low
12/13/2019Dollar359362359363Low
12/13/2019Euro394398394398Low
12/12/2019 00:00Pounds464472464472Low
12/12/2019 00:00Dollar358360359361Low
12/12/2019 00:00Euro392397392397Low
12/11/2019 00:00Pounds463470464472Low
12/11/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
12/11/2019 00:00Euro393397392397Low
12/10/2019 00:00Pounds462468463470Low
12/10/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
12/10/2019 00:00Euro392397393397Low
12/09/2019 00:00Pounds462468462468Low
12/09/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
12/09/2019 00:00Euro392397392397Low
12/06/2019 00:00Pounds462467463468Low
12/06/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
12/06/2019 00:00Euro390396390396Low
12/05/2019 00:00Pounds462467462467Low
12/05/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
12/05/2019 00:00Euro390396390396Low
12/04/2019 00:00Pounds460466460466Low
12/04/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
12/04/2019 00:00Euro390396390396Low
12/03/2019 00:00Pounds460465460465Low
12/03/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
12/03/2019 00:00Euro390396390396Low
12/02/2019 00:00Pounds460466460465Low
12/02/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
12/02/2019 00:00Euro390395390395Low
11/29/2019Pounds462466462466Low
11/29/2019Dollar358360358360Low
11/29/2019Euro390395392397Low
11/28/2019Pounds462467462466Low
11/28/2019Dollar358360358360Low
11/28/2019Euro390395390395Low
11/27/2019Pounds460465462467Low
11/27/2019Dollar358360358360Low
11/27/2019Euro391396390395Low
11/26/2019Pounds462466462466Low
11/26/2019Dollar358360358360Low
11/26/2019Euro390395390395Low
11/25/2019Pounds460465462466Low
11/25/2019Dollar358360358360Low
11/25/2019Euro390398390395Low
11/22/2019Pounds460464460465Low
11/22/2019Dollar357360358360Low
11/22/2019Euro390398390398Low
11/21/2019Pounds460464460464Low
11/21/2019Dollar357360357360Low
11/21/2019Euro390397390397Low
11/20/2019Pounds460464460464Low
11/20/2019Dollar358360358360Low
11/20/2019Euro390398390397Low
11/19/2019Pounds460465460464Low
11/19/2019Dollar358360358360Low
11/19/2019Euro392398390398Low
11/18/2019Pounds458464460465Low
11/18/2019Dollar358360358360Low
11/18/2019Euro390398392398Low
11/15/2019Pounds458464458464Low
11/15/2019Dollar358360358360Low
11/15/2019Euro392398393398Low
11/14/2019Pounds458464458464Low
11/14/2019Dollar358360358360Low
11/14/2019Euro390398392398Low
11/13/2019Pounds460465458464Low
11/13/2019Dollar358360358360Low
11/13/2019Euro392398392398Low
11/12/2019 00:00Pounds460465460465Low
11/12/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
11/12/2019 00:00Euro394399394399Low
11/08/2019 00:00Pounds458463460465Low
11/08/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
11/08/2019 00:00Euro393398394400Low
11/06/2019 00:00Pounds458463458464Low
11/06/2019 00:00Dollar357360357360Low
11/06/2019 00:00Euro393400393400Low
11/05/2019 00:00Pounds458463458463Low
11/05/2019 00:00Dollar357360357360Low
11/05/2019 00:00Euro393400393400Low
11/04/2019 00:00Pounds458463458463Low
11/04/2019 00:00Dollar357360357360Low
11/04/2019 00:00Euro392400393400Low
11/01/2019 00:00Pounds458463458463Low
11/01/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
11/01/2019 00:00Euro393400394400Low
10/31/2019Pounds460464458463Low
10/31/2019Dollar358360358360Low
10/31/2019Euro395400393400Low
10/30/2019Pounds457463457463Low
10/30/2019Dollar358360358360Low
10/30/2019Euro395400395400Low
10/29/2019Pounds457463457463Low
10/29/2019Dollar358360358360Low
10/29/2019Euro395400395400Low
10/28/2019Pounds457462457463Low
10/28/2019Dollar358360358360Low
10/28/2019Euro396402395400Low
10/25/2019Pounds457463457462Low
10/25/2019Dollar358360358360Low
10/25/2019Euro396403396402Low
10/24/2019Pounds457462457463Low
10/24/2019Dollar358360358360Low
10/24/2019Euro396403396403Low
10/23/2019Pounds457463457462Low
10/23/2019Dollar358360358360Low
10/23/2019Euro397403396403Low
10/22/2019Pounds455460457463Low
10/22/2019Dollar358360358360Low
10/22/2019Euro395402397403Low
10/21/2019Pounds450455450455Low
10/21/2019Dollar358360358360Low
10/21/2019Euro387395390397Low
10/18/2019Pounds446453446453Low
10/18/2019Dollar358360358360Low
10/18/2019Euro387393387393Low
10/17/2019Pounds445450446452Low
10/17/2019Dollar358360358360Low
10/17/2019Euro387392387393Low
10/16/2019Pounds445452445450Low
10/16/2019Dollar358360358360Low
10/16/2019Euro387395387392Low
10/15/2019Pounds445450445452Low
10/15/2019Dollar357360358360Low
10/15/2019Euro385390385390Low
10/14/2019Pounds445450445450Low
10/14/2019Dollar358360357360Low
10/14/2019Euro384390385390Low
10/11/2019 00:00Pounds445450445450Low
10/11/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
10/11/2019 00:00Euro384390384390Low
10/10/2019 00:00Pounds445450445450Low
10/10/2019 00:00Dollar357360357360Low
10/10/2019 00:00Euro386390384390Low
10/09/2019 00:00Pounds445453445450Low
10/09/2019 00:00Dollar357360357360Low
10/09/2019 00:00Euro390395386390Low
10/08/2019 00:00Pounds448453445453Low
10/08/2019 00:00Dollar357360357360Low
10/08/2019 00:00Euro390395390395Low
10/07/2019 00:00Pounds448453448453Low
10/07/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
10/07/2019 00:00Euro392396390395Low
10/04/2019 00:00Pounds450454448453Low
10/04/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
10/04/2019 00:00Euro392397392396Low
10/03/2019 00:00Pounds450454450454Low
10/03/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
10/03/2019 00:00Euro392397392397Low
10/02/2019 00:00Pounds450453450453Low
10/02/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
10/02/2019 00:00Euro392397392397Low
9/30/2019Pounds445450450453Low
9/30/2019Dollar358360358360Low
9/30/2019Euro392397392397Low
9/27/2019Pounds446452445450Low
9/27/2019Dollar357360358360Low
9/27/2019Euro392396392397Low
9/26/2019Pounds445450445450Low
9/26/2019Dollar357360357360Low
9/26/2019Euro390395392396Low
9/25/2019Pounds444449445450Low
9/25/2019Dollar357360357360Low
9/25/2019Euro390394390395Low
9/24/2019Pounds445448445449Low
9/24/2019Dollar357360357360Low
9/24/2019Euro390395390395Low
9/23/2019Pounds445450445450Low
9/23/2019Dollar357360357360Low
9/23/2019Euro392395392396Low
9/20/2019Pounds443446445450Low
9/20/2019Dollar357360357360Low
9/20/2019Euro392395392395Low
9/19/2019Pounds442446443446Low
9/19/2019Dollar357360357360Low
9/19/2019Euro390395391394Low
9/18/2019Pounds442447440446Low
9/18/2019Dollar357360357360Low
9/18/2019Euro390395390395Low
9/17/2019Pounds445448444447Low
9/17/2019Dollar358360358360Low
9/17/2019Euro394398393397Low
9/16/2019Pounds445450445450Low
9/16/2019Dollar357360357360Low
9/16/2019Euro394400394400Low
9/13/2019Pounds445450445450Low
9/13/2019Dollar357360357360Low
9/13/2019Euro394398394398Low
09/12/2019 00:00Pounds440445445450Low
09/12/2019 00:00Dollar357360357360Low
09/12/2019 00:00Euro393398394398Low
09/11/2019 00:00Pounds440446440446Low
09/11/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
09/11/2019 00:00Euro392395392398Low
09/10/2019 00:00Pounds437450440446Low
09/10/2019 00:00Dollar356360358360Low
09/10/2019 00:00Euro388397392395Low
09/09/2019 00:00Pounds440444440445Low
09/09/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
09/09/2019 00:00Euro390396390395Low
09/06/2019 00:00Pounds440444440444Low
09/06/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
09/06/2019 00:00Euro392398390396Low
09/05/2019 00:00Pounds440444440444Low
09/05/2019 00:00Dollar357360358360Low
09/05/2019 00:00Euro392398392397Low
09/04/2019 00:00Pounds440443440444Low
09/04/2019 00:00Dollar357360358360Low
09/04/2019 00:00Euro392398392397Low
09/03/2019 00:00Pounds438443438443Low
09/03/2019 00:00Dollar357360357360Low
09/03/2019 00:00Euro392397392398Low
09/02/2019 00:00Pounds437445438443Low
09/02/2019 00:00Dollar357360357360Low
09/02/2019 00:00Euro391396392397Low
30/08/2019 00:00Pounds442448440445Low
30/08/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
30/08/2019 00:00Euro392398395398Low
29/08/2019 00:00Pounds440446442448Low
29/08/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
29/08/2019 00:00Euro392398392398Low
28/08/2019 00:00Pounds444450440445Low
28/08/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
28/08/2019 00:00Euro392396392398Low
27/08/2019 00:00Pounds444450444450Low
27/08/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
27/08/2019 00:00Euro394400393398Low
26/08/2019 00:00Pounds442447443448Low
26/08/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
26/08/2019 00:00Euro392397393397Low
23/08/2019 00:00Pounds440445440445Low
23/08/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
23/08/2019 00:00Euro390397390397Low
22/08/2019 00:00Pounds445450440445Low
22/08/2019 00:00Dollar357359358360Low
22/08/2019 00:00Euro393398390397Low
21/08/2019 00:00Pounds447452445450Low
21/08/2019 00:00Dollar358360357359Low
21/08/2019 00:00Euro392398393398Low
20/08/2019 00:00Pounds450455447452Low
20/08/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
20/08/2019 00:00Euro395400392398Low
19/08/2019 00:00Pounds450455450455Low
19/08/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
19/08/2019 00:00Euro395400395400Low
16/08/2019 00:00Pounds451455450455Low
16/08/2019 00:00Dollar357360358360Low
16/08/2019 00:00Euro397402395400Low
15/08/2019 00:00Pounds450455451455Low
15/08/2019 00:00Dollar357360357360Low
15/08/2019 00:00Euro398403397402Low
14/08/2019 00:00Pounds450455450455Low
14/08/2019 00:00Dollar357360357360Low
14/08/2019 00:00Euro398403398403Low
09/08/2019 00:00Pounds450455450455Low
09/08/2019 00:00Dollar357360357360Low
09/08/2019 00:00Euro398404398403Low
08/08/2019 00:00Pounds450455450455Low
08/08/2019 00:00Dollar357360357360Low
08/08/2019 00:00Euro398403398404Low
07/08/2019 00:00Pounds453458450455Low
07/08/2019 00:00Dollar357360357360Low
07/08/2019 00:00Euro398403398403Low
06/08/2019 00:00Pounds457460452458Low
06/08/2019 00:00Dollar358360357360Low
06/08/2019 00:00Euro400404400403Low
05/08/2019 00:00Pounds458462457461Low
05/08/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
05/08/2019 00:00Euro400405400405Low
02/08/2019 00:00Pounds458462458462Low
02/08/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
02/08/2019 00:00Euro400405400405Low
01/08/2019 00:00Pounds458462458462Low
01/08/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
01/08/2019 00:00Euro402405402405Low
31/07/2019 00:00Pounds458463458463Low
31/07/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
31/07/2019 00:00Euro403407403407Low
30/07/2019 00:00Pounds458463458463Low
30/07/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
30/07/2019 00:00Euro403407403407Low
29/07/2019 00:00Pounds458461458463Low
29/07/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
29/07/2019 00:00Euro402406403407Low
26/07/2019 00:00Pounds459463458461Low
26/07/2019 00:00Dollar358361358360Low
26/07/2019 00:00Euro403406401405Low
25/07/2019 00:00Pounds459463459463Low
25/07/2019 00:00Dollar358361358361Low
25/07/2019 00:00Euro403407403406Low
24/07/2019 00:00Pounds459463459463Low
24/07/2019 00:00Dollar358361358361Low
24/07/2019 00:00Euro404407403407Low
23/07/2019 00:00Pounds460464459463Low
23/07/2019 00:00Dollar359361358361Low
23/07/2019 00:00Euro406410404407Low
22/07/2019 00:00Pounds459463459463Low
22/07/2019 00:00Dollar358360359361Low
22/07/2019 00:00Euro406410406410Low
19/07/2019 00:00Pounds459463459463Low
19/07/2019 00:00Pounds358360358360Low
19/07/2019 00:00Pounds406410406410Low
18/07/2019 00:00Pounds458462459463Low
18/07/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
18/07/2019 00:00Euro403407406410Low
17/07/2019 00:00Pounds458462458462Low
17/07/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
17/07/2019 00:00Euro403407403407Low
16/07/2019 00:00Pounds460463458462Low
16/07/2019 00:00Dollar359361358360Low
16/07/2019 00:00Euro405408403407Low
13/07/2019 00:00Pounds460464460463Low
13/07/2019 00:00Dollar359361359361Low
13/07/2019 00:00Euro405410405408Low
12/07/2019 00:00Pounds458463460464Low
12/07/2019 00:00Dollar359361359361Low
12/07/2019 00:00Euro404407405410Low
11/07/2019 00:00Pounds458463458462Low
11/07/2019 00:00Dollar359362359361Low
11/07/2019 00:00Euro402407405410Low
10/07/2019 00:00Pounds458463458463Low
10/07/2019 00:00Dollar359361358361Low
10/07/2019 00:00Euro401406402405Low
09/07/2019 00:00Pounds458465457465Low
09/07/2019 00:00Dollar359362359362Low
09/07/2019 00:00Euro401405402405Low
08/07/2019 00:00Pounds458463460465Low
08/07/2019 00:00Dollar359362359362Low
08/07/2019 00:00Euro401405401405Low
05/07/2019 00:00Pounds458463458463Low
05/07/2019 00:00Dollar359362359362Low
05/07/2019 00:00Euro401405401405Low
04/07/2019 00:00Pounds458463458463Low
04/07/2019 00:00Dollar359362359362Low
04/07/2019 00:00Euro401405400405Low
03/07/2019 00:00Pounds458464458463Low
03/07/2019 00:00Dollar359361359362Low
03/07/2019 00:00Euro401405401405Low
02/07/2019 00:00Pounds458462458463Low
02/07/2019 00:00Dollar359361359361Low
02/07/2019 00:00Euro398402400404Low
01/07/2019 00:00Pounds458462458462Low
01/07/2019 00:00Dollar358360359361Low
01/07/2019 00:00Euro400403398403Low
28/06/2019 00:00Pounds457460457462Low
28/06/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
28/06/2019 00:00Euro398402400403Low
27/06/2019 00:00Pounds458462458462Low
27/06/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
27/06/2019 00:00Euro398402398402Low
26/06/2019 00:00Pounds458463458462Low
26/06/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
26/06/2019 00:00Euro398402400403Low
25/06/2019 00:00Pounds458464458464Low
25/06/2019 00:00Dollar358361358361Low
25/06/2019 00:00Euro400403398402Low
24/06/2019 00:00Pounds458464460465Low
24/06/2019 00:00Dollar358361359361Low
24/06/2019 00:00Euro398402398403Low
21/06/2019 00:00Pounds460465458464Low
21/06/2019 00:00Dollar358361358361Low
21/06/2019 00:00Euro398402398402Low
20/06/2019 00:00Pounds460465468462Low
20/06/2019 00:00Dollar358361358361Low
20/06/2019 00:00Euro398402400403Low
19/06/2019 00:00Pounds460465460465Low
19/06/2019 00:00Dollar358361358361Low
19/06/2019 00:00Euro398401398402Low
18/06/2019 00:00Pounds460465462465Low
18/06/2019 00:00Dollar359361358361Low
18/06/2019 00:00Euro400403400405Low
17/06/2019 00:00Pounds462467462468Low
17/06/2019 00:00Dollar358361358361Low
17/06/2019 00:00Euro400404400404Low
14/06/2019 00:00Pounds426467426467Low
14/06/2019 00:00Dollar358361358361Low
14/06/2019 00:00Euro400404400404Low
13/06/2019 00:00Pounds467471462467Low
13/06/2019 00:00Dollar358361358361Low
13/06/2019 00:00Euro400404400404Low
12/06/2019 00:00Pounds468471467471Low
12/06/2019 00:00Dollar358361358361Low
12/06/2019 00:00Euro400404400404Low
11/06/2019 00:00Pounds465470467471Low
11/06/2019 00:00Dollar358361359361Low
11/06/2019 00:00Euro400403399402Low
10/06/2019 00:00Pounds468472468472Low
10/06/2019 00:00Dollar358361358361Low
10/06/2019 00:00Euro404400400404Low
07/06/2019 00:00Pounds469473467471Low
07/06/2019 00:00Dollar358361358360Low
07/06/2019 00:00Euro400403398402Low
06/06/2019 00:00Pounds468472465470Low
06/06/2019 00:00Dollar358360358361Low
06/06/2019 00:00Euro398402403400Low
03/06/2019 00:00Pounds468472468472Low
03/06/2019 00:00Dollar358360358361Low
03/06/2019 00:00Euro398402398402Low
31/05/2019 00:00Pounds465470470474Low
31/05/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
31/05/2019 00:00Euro397402400403Low
30/05/2019 00:00Pounds470474470474Low
30/05/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
30/05/2019 00:00Euro400403400403Low
28/05/2019 00:00Pounds470474470474Low
28/05/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
28/05/2019 00:00Euro400403400403Low
27/05/2019 00:00Pounds470474470474Low
27/05/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
27/05/2019 00:00Euro400403400404Low
24/05/2019 00:00Pounds470474470474Low
24/05/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
24/05/2019 00:00Euro400405400405Low
23/05/2019 00:00Pounds470474472475Low
23/05/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
23/05/2019 00:00Euro400405400405Low
22/05/2019 00:00Pounds472475472475Low
22/05/2019 00:00Dollar358350358360Low
22/05/2019 00:00Euro400405400405Low
21/05/2019 00:00Pounds472475472473Low
21/05/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
21/05/2019 00:00Euro400405400405Low
20/05/2019 00:00Pounds472475472475Low
20/05/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
20/05/2019 00:00Euro400405400405Low
17/05/2019 00:00Pounds472475472475Low
17/05/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
17/05/2019 00:00Euro400405400404Low
16/05/2019 00:00Pounds472475472475Low
16/05/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
16/05/2018 00:00Euro400404400404Low
15/05/2019 00:00Pounds470475470475Low
15/05/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
15/05/2019 00:00Euro400404400404Low
13/05/2019 00:00Pounds470475470475Low
13/05/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
13/05/2019 00:00Euro400404400405Low
10/05/2019 00:00Pounds470475470475Low
10/05/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
10/05/2019 00:00Euro400405400405Low
09/05/2019 00:00Pounds470475470475Low
09/05/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
09/05/2019 00:00Euro400405400405Low
29/04/2019 00:00Pounds470475470475Low
29/04/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
29/04/2019 00:00Euro400405400405Low
26/04/2019 00:00Pounds470475470475Low
26/04/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
26/04/2019 00:00Euro400405400405Low
25/04/2019 00:00Pounds470475470475Low
25/04/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
25/04/2019 00:00Euro400405400405Low
24/04/2019 00:00Pounds470475472476Low
24/04/2019 00:00Dollar358360358360Low
24/04/2019 00:00Euro400405400405Low
23/04/2019 00:00Pounds474478472476Low
23/04/2019 00:00Dollar355360358360Low
23/04/2019 00:00Euro390402400405Low
22/04/2019 00:00Pounds472476472476Low
22/04/2019 00:00Dollar357360358360Low
22/04/2019 00:00Euro400405400405Low
19/04/2019 00:00Pounds467471470475Low
19/04/2019 00:00Dollar355360357360Low
19/04/2019 00:00Euro395400402406Low
18/04/2019 00:00Pounds470475470475Low
18/04/2019 00:00Dollar357360357360Low
18/04/2019 00:00Euro402406402406Low
17/04/2019 00:00Pounds470475470475Low
17/04/2019 00:00Dollar357360357360Low
17/04/2019 00:00Euro402406402406Low
16/04/2019 00:00Pounds465470470475Low
16/04/2019 00:00Dollar360365357360Low
16/04/2019 00:00Euro400405402405Low

Data is collated from various black market dealers on the mainland and island parts of Lagos State where forex is sold. The price quoted daily on this page represents the average price obtained by our Research Team. Our prices are a guide and could be slightly different from the price you get when you eventually decide to buy or sell. This is a daily tracker and updated close of business. See table below for parallel market exchange rate dating to 2019.

Continue Reading

Currencies

Parallel market rate and the FX window to converge towards the official rate in 2021 – United Capital report

According to a recent report, the exchange rates at the parallel market and the I&E FX window are expected to converge in 2021.

Published

on

Naira stabilizes at black market as CBN continues its intervention in forex market

United Capital Plc has stated that it expects a convergence between parallel market rate and the I&E FX window in 2021, which is contingent on repetition of history as well as CBN’s intervention in parallel market activities.

This is contained in a recent report by the company: Nigeria Outlook 2021 — A Shot at Recovery.

READ: CBN to “introduce” uniform exchange rate for naira

According to the company,

  • “The fact is that the Nigerian economy has been here before, in 2016, when the parallel market rate climbed as high as N500/$1 but converged to N360/$1 after the I&E window was introduced.”

Informed by this, the company believes history and regulation will result in a possible appreciation from the parallel market rates of N470/$1 -N500/$1 towards the official rate.

Specta

READ: United Capital Plc lists N10 billion fixed rate bonds

As regards the official rate, the company submits that its projection is that the official rate should find its level around N400/$1-N415/$1 in 2021 — thus expecting the parallel market rate and I&E window to also be around N400/$1-N415/$1 this year.

What they are saying

According to the report,

  • “If the past is any indication of the future, we think an additional 6% -10% currency adjustment (to bring the official rate to roughly N400-N415/$1) will be needed to structurally rebalance the current account by year-end or Q1-2021. Other upside factors that may support the market includes recent $1.5bn inflow from the World Bank, the proposed bilateral facilities expected from Brazil and a possible Eurobond issuances in 2021.”
  • “In spite of the projected decline in diaspora remittances, we are of the view that the move to allow recipients of diaspora remittances through the International Monetary Transfer Operators (IMTO) have inflows in foreign currency through the designated bank of their choice, will help improve liquidity in the system, and help reduce the pressure on parallel market rate going forward.”

United Capital Plc expects these to significantly improve the CBN’s ability to defend the currency at N400/$1-N415/$1.

Coronation ads

What you should know

As of yesterday:

  • The CBN official rate stood at N380/$1.
  • The parallel market rate closed at N470/$1.
  • The I&E FX window opened at N392.69/$1 and closed at N394.67/$1.

Continue Reading

Cryptocurrency

U.S Central Bank leader says no rush into crypto dollar

Jerome Powell recently spoke on why the U.S central bank had no reason to rush into central bank digital currencies.

Published

on

dollar

The world’s most powerful monetary policy chief, Jerome Powell, recently spoke on why the U.S central bank had no reason to rush into central bank digital currencies.

In a YouTube webinar organised by Yahoo Finance and conducted by highly revered economist, Markus Brunnermeier, the U.S Fed Reserve Chairman stated that the US central bank desires to get it right and hence doesn’t feel an urge or need to be the first.

READ: Central banks digital currencies pose a threat against the U.S dollar

“Since we are the world’s reserve currency, we actually think we need to get this right, and we don’t feel an urge or need to be first,” he said. “We effectively already have a first-mover advantage, because we’re the reserve currency.”

Powell also revealed that stablecoins were of high-level priority.

Specta

READ: Crypto usage absolutely certain – Standard Chartered

“We’ve been very focused… on potential regulatory answers for global stablecoins, in particular,” said Powell in response to a question about CBDCs, or central bank digital currencies.

“So that’s been a high-level focus, and that will continue to be a high-level focus because they could become systemically important overnight and we don’t begin to have, you know, our arms around the potential risks and how to manage those risks, and the public will expect we do and has every right to expect that… It’s a very high priority.”

READ: Gold prices up on U.S Central Bank’s will to keep interest rates low

Coronation ads

Recall many months ago, the world’s largest economy considered the use of digital dollars, following slow COVID-19 stimulus payments to its citizens. The U.S Congress recently heard testimonies on the usage of digital dollars to facilitate the U.S’ legacy financial infrastructure.

Just yesterday, America’s Congressional Fintech Task Force examined Federation Accounts and the use of digital dollars in expanding financial reach in the United States.

READ: Naira gains at NAFEX window as CBN squashes early devaluation thoughts

What you need to know about Digital Dollar: The U.S government considered a framework in creating a U.S. central bank digital currency, which would be mined through the blockchain protocol, transferred between users, and recorded in a public ledger.

Coronation ads
  • The digital dollars would be stored in a distributed database via the internet, on an electronic computer database, within a stored-value card or virtual files.

Stanbic IBTC
Continue Reading
Advertisement




Advertisement